"So what is new, sonny?"


October 14, 2017

The HET website has a new look and navigation system.  We have integrated a search engine, sidebar and breadcrumbs across most pages, that should make it easier to navigate.

In other news, the HET Website will be participating as an organizing partner in the Festival for New Economic Thinking ( on October 19-20, 2017 at the Edinburgh Corn Exchange in Edinburgh, Scotland.   Be sure to attend!

Festival for New Economic Thinking,
October 19-20, 2017, Edinburgh


May 17, 2016

Announcement of re-birth of the History of Economic Thought Website ( (posted to SHOE listserve and INET economics blog):

Dear friends,

I am pleased to announce that the History of Economic Thought Website is back. I am thankful for the assistance of the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET), which has supported its revival and made it possible.

As many of you may know, the HET Website was constructed by myself (Gonšalo Fonseca) in a burst of youthful energy, oh lord, many years ago now. It was hosted for a long time on a faculty server at the New School for Social Research. It subsequently jumped around through other servers, and then went down for a while. Well, now it is back again, at a new URL address:

The HET website will be here for a while, so you can update your bookmarks.

While it has been considerably revamped, its mission remains the same.

The HET website is a repository of collected links and information on the history of economic thought, from the ancient times until the modern day. It is designed for students and the general public, who are interested in learning about economics from a historical perspective.

The HET website it not an online textbook nor a reference encyclopedia. I like to think of it as a "link tank", pointing students and researchers to online resources on economic theory. I have just organized these links in a manner which is both entertaining and educational.

The material is organized through three main navigation channels: (1) via an Alphabetical Index of individual economist profiles, (2) via Schools of Thought (loosely defined) and (3) via a series of Essays and Surveys on specific topics.

When I originally set it up, the available resources online for HET material were relatively scarce, with a few invaluable depositories, such as the McMaster Archive set up by Roderick Hay. Online materials have greatly expanded since, with Googlebooks,, Gallica, etc. The new version of the HET Website incorporates materials from these new sources.

I am still in the process of reviewing and revising every page and checking that every link works, that deprecated links are updated or removed, and new links added. It is still an on-going process, and some stray old links have yet to be fixed, so I ask for patience.

As always, I have maintained a strict policy of linking only to online resources which are freely available to everyone, academic and non-academic. I do not link to works behind paywalls or institutional restrictions, nor to commercial sites, nor sites requiring complicated registrations, etc.

However, it has come to my attention (a little too late) that some online archives have different IP-restrictions depending on country. Notably Googlebooks seems to treat different parts of the world differently, so that books that are available to Americans may not be viewable to Europeans (it seems they have a 1872 memory barrier for European IPs, but a 1924 barrier for US IPs and a 1885 barrier for Canadian IPs). The HET Website was created in the US and is optimized for US IPs, and as a result some non-US viewers may experience some frustratation. Nonetheless, rest assured that if the link is here, then the book or article is freely available to American IPs, and can be accessed by virtual network. Also keep in mind that most of Googlebooks is now mirrored by, which doesn't seem to have country restrictions. We have begun (belatedly) to link to these. But in the meantime, if you end up in a dead end on Googleboooks, look up the same title on, and it is almost certain to be available there.

Rather than give preference to a particular online source, and swamp you with seas of blue, I have decided to pile the links to all the online versions available via "codes" at the end of the title. e.g.

- [bk] (or sometimes a page or volume number) refers to Googlebooks.
- [av] -
- [bnf] - Gallica, at the Bibliotheque Nationale de France
- [js] - Jstor (note: I only link to the pre-1920 articles that they make publicly available)
- [McM] - Rod Hay's McMaster archive
- [bris] - Tony Brewer's Bristol site
- [taieb] - Paulette Taieb's website
- [lib] - Library of Economics and Liberty at LibertyFund
- [mia] - Marxists Internet Archive
- [mis] - Mises Institute
- [moa] - Making of America database at Cornell & Michigan
- [eebo] - Early English books online at Michigan
- [hth] - Hathi Trust
- [cwls] - Cowles foundation papers
- [nber] - NBER papers archive
- [het] - a text we host ourselves

and so on (see online texts). This way better maximizes sources for an article or book (in case you have a preference for one format or another).

Since scholars are a finicky bunch, I have made the extra effort to track down the original facsimile version of an article or book. Where a book has multiple editions, I have tried to find links to every edition available.

Of course, the HET website is not merely a resource for specialist scholars. It also serves as a guide to introduce more general researchers, teachers, students and the interested public to economics and its history.

I owe gratitude to INET for persuading me to revive the HET website as well as providing support for doing so. New economic thinking, they reminded me, begins by remembering past economic thinking.

I hope you enjoy the new HET website. There are now over 1,000 economist profiles, 100 schools of thought and some 50+ surveys of topics with links to tens of thousands of online books and articles. This is an on-going project, there still remains much to be revised, profiles and essays to be completed and new content to be added, so keep checking back

Best regards,

Gonšalo L. Fonseca



November 18, 2015

We moved, once again.

This History of Economic Thought website has acquired its own web address and site here at  We will be here for a while, so please update your bookmarks.

Created, written and maintained by Gonšalo L. Fonseca, the HET website was originally launched in 1998, and hosted for a long time on a faculty server at the New School for Social Research. It subsequently jumped around through other servers, but is now permanently located at

I would like to acknowledge the invaluable support and assistance of the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET) since 2013, which has enabled me to expand, revise and revamp the HET Website.  It is not yet complete and there are parts still being revised.  We now have profiles of over a thousand economists and schools of thought, more surveys and essays, and new, updated links to tens of thousands of articles and books.

For more about INET, see

Apparently, in the interim of our transfer here, there were a few mirror sites that popped up elsewhere based on our old site.  Those sites are not connected with us.   This is the original and only site maintained by me.

Thank you for all your encouraging e-mails.  We have been a bit time-constrained lately, so we apologize for not having answered them all. 

You will notice some changes. First of all, the facelift.  We hope this site is a bit better-looking than the last. Secondly, you will find that some of the content has changed.  We have done many corrections, but all that is still very much delayed.  There are also still many pages being processed and these will be up in due course.

Naturally, we are always looking for comments, so please do not hesitate to contact us.

We'll be putting up a search engine and a guest forum soon, so please check us out again.   Please do not forget to read the disclaimer.  Click here for introduction.


Gonšalo L. Fonseca

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