(1) Online Text Archives
(A) General Archives
(B) Specialized Archives
(2) List of Texts hosted on the HET website
(A) Major Texts
(B) Minor Texts
The HET website is a not a depository of articles or books themselves (save
for a few hard-to-find examples - see list). For the
most part, it merely links to where copies are available elsewhere online, in
online text archives constructed by others.
The availability of electronic books and articles has greatly expanded since we launched
this website back in the late 1990s. At the time, there were few sources
of economics books online, notably Roderick Hay's depository at McMaster
University (and is mirrors), and generalist text sites like Gutenburg.
Formatting was usually in .txt or .html.
The new expanded version of the HET website (2015) now also gathers sources
from major online depositories (Googlebooks, Archive.org, Gallica, etc.). So instead of a few thousand, we now link
to tens of thousands of online books and articles.
As a policy, the HET website tries to ensure that all online texts it links
to are freely available to all researchers, both academic and
non-academic. That means that we do not link to books and articles
behind paywalls of institutional restrictions. We also do not link to commercial
sites, publisher sites, sites requiring complicated registrations, etc.
Every link you follow should lead to a freely-available version of the text..
Do note, however, that the HET website was constructed and hosted in the
United States, and is optimized for users with US-based internet addresses.
We have since learned that some online archives have IP-restrictions
depending on country, so some users with non-US IPs may not be able to access
the same free texts and may experience some frustration. We realized
this a bit late in the process, and are currently trying to rectify that by
providing alternative options where we can. This is still on-going, so we
ask for patience. In the meantime, rest assured that if the link is here,
then the book or article is freely available to American IPs, and can be
accessed by virtual network. Also keep in mind that a lot book archives are now
mirrored by Archive.org, which doesn't seem to have country restrictions.
There is no single comprehensive list of external online texts. Rather,
most of the online texts are linked via the individual economist
profile pages. Scroll down to "Major works of ...." section, and the links
there should lead to online versions of the text. We have also linked to
additional texts in the "Resources on..." sections at the bottom of the page.
External texts are also linked at the bottom of the school
of thought pages. For general resources on the history of economic
thought, see our general links page.
Frequently, there are multiple online versions of the same text. We
make an effort to provide as many as we can find. Because we do not know
the preference of the user, we try not to impose a particular source on the
title, but gathered the multitude of available links via coded labels ("[
]") at the end of the title (e.g. [bk], [av], [McM], etc.), and let the reader
pick his favorite version. Because scholars are a finicky bunch, we have made the extra effort to track down the
original version of an article or book. Where a book has multiple
editions, we have tried to find links to every edition available. The label codes refer to the online
archive or site where the text is
(A) General archives
- Google Books [Google Books] has been our major source of new links,
and our first preference in forging links. A link
to Googlebooks is normally designated simply "[bk]" or sometimes "[gb]", or
occasionally, if an article, then by the page number "[p.123]" or volume number
"[v.1]" or by edition number "[3rd ed.]"
- Note to non-US users: Googlebooks treats countries differentially
depending on national copyright law. This website was constructed and hosted in
the US, and Googlebooks accessible to users in the US (or using US IP addresses)
are not necessarily available to non-US users (using foreign IP addresses).
As a result, some of our links may not work for non-US readers. Google
seems to have set up a "wall" so that non-US users (e.g. from EU countries) cannot access any books
written after 1872, whereas US users can access books printed up until 1923.
The extra fifty years are not accessible outside the US. The reason
for this seems to be differences in copyright law. Although US
and EU have same copyright length ("Life plus 75 years"), US copyright law
imposes a memory barrier at 1923 so that copyright only applies for books
written after that, whereas EU copyright law has no initial memory barrier
(paradoxically the EU laws were introduced to "harmonize" with US law, but
it turns out we end up with disharmony!). The Googlebooks decision to
impose a 1872 date as a foreign wall is apparently arbitrary - Googlebooks doesn't
verify the copyright status of individual books, so there are books in
public domain in the EU and elsewhere after 1872 which Googlebooks does not
let access. It seems like they just introduced a wholesale massive
wall at 1872, on the speculative bet that nobody who wrote a book before
1872 would have still been alive 70 years ago. It also seems Canadian
users (where copyright law is Life + 50) have a different "foreign
wall" (set around 1884) on the same logic.
- Archive.org [Archive.org] has been the main alternative to Googlebooks. A link
to a text on Archive.org is normally designated "[av]".
Besides is own texts, Archive.org also mirrors a lot of other archives. It is
frequently the cases that foreign IPs who cannot access Googlebooks, can
access the same title in Archive.org.
- Hathi trust [Hathi Trust]
library compiles electronic versions of books collected at
various American universities, notably Michigan, Cornell, California and
Ohio State. Links to it are generally denoted "[hth]".
Many of the articles they have are also available at Googlebooks and
at the University of Pennsylvania usually provides author-based links to
the Hathi trust versions.
- Gallica [Gallica] hosted by the Bibliotheque Nationale de France in Paris,
is an especially excellent source for French language books. However, sometime in the past few years, the BNF changed
its url addresses to Gallica texts, so that some old links on this site no longer work. Where
these have been verified and updated, the link is denoted "[bnf]". I
have not gone through them all yet, so you may occasionally stumble on a bad
link - but rest assured the electronic version is somewhere on Gallica.
- Jstor [Jstor]
is a major site of articles in academic journals. However, most of
Jstor is behind institutional restrictions. As a matter of policy, we do not link to
articles behind paywalss or restrictions. Every text linked on our website must be accessible
to the general public, and not merely to universities or companies who pay
for access. As a result, we have not forged links to the Jstor
database. However, Jstor has recently made many of its earlier volumes
of journals (before 1920 or thereabouts) accessible to the general public.
Links are made to these, and denoted "[js]" (note that versions of the publicly-accessible
Jstor articles are also available at Archive.org; just takes a little more digging).
- Persee [Persee]
is a major site of articles in French academic journals. Many are not
institutionally restricted, and where available are denoted "[pers]"
- Gutenberg Project [Gutenberg]
provides many texts in html format. These are usually designated "[gut]".
- "Making of America" digital libraries at Cornell and Michigan
contains mostly jpg-versions of American books and journals. They are not
mirrors, but seem to be slightly specialized.
contains mostly northern US texts, while
to focus on southern texts. Both are labeled "[moa]".
- OPACplus [Opac],
available from the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek, contains many
German-language facsimile texts, and is designated "[bay]"
(B) Specialized archives:
- MacMaster Archive [McMaster
Archive] of the History of Economic Thought links to html-based texts at
the late Roderick Hay's pioneering depository at MacMaster University are designated "[McM]".
Links to its
Mirror by Tony
Brewer (Bristol), are usually designated "[bris]".
- Taieb's website [Le Jardin aux Sentiers qui
Bifurquent], a site created by Paulette Taieb, has many
html-texts on the history of economic thought. Links to these are
- LibertyFund seems to maintain two archives of html texts related
to the history of economic thought. There is the "Library of Economics
and Liberty" (Econlib.org)
and the "Online Library of Liberty" (Oll.libertyfund.org).
Links to the LibertyFund libraries are denoted "[lib]"
- Marxist Internet Archive at Marxists.org (Marxists Internet Archive)
provides many links to the html text version of English translations of the
works of classical Marxist writers, and links to it are designated as "[mia]"
It also contains some non-English versions. There is a similar
German-language site (Marxismus-Leninismus
Werke) and links to these are usually designated "[mle]"
- Perseus [Perseus
Digital Library] at Tufts provides html-versions of many texts, and
is especially good with Ancient Greek & Roman Classics, and designated "[prs]".
A similar source of Ancient html texts is the Internet Classics
Archive at MIT, usually designated "[mit]".
- Mises Institute (Mises Institute Library)
at Mises Institute provides links to many html and pdf versions of
texts, mostly by Austrian writers. Links to these are generally
- Cowles Foundation [Cowles
Foundation] provides electronic versions of many of its publications and
discussion papers. These are designated "[cwls]". It also
used to provide a magnificent reprint series online, but many of these links
recently deprecated (2016). We maintain them temporarily in the hope they
might go back up.
- NBER [NBER] the
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) provides electronic versions of
many of its older publications, as well as working papers. These are
- Oxford Text Archive [Oxford Text Archive]
provides many html text. Links are designated "[ota]"
- Athena e-texts [Athena],
compiled by Pierre Perraud of classic works, mostly in French, in html text,
. Links are designated "[ath]".
EEBO [Early English Books
Online] maintained at the University of Michigan, provides
html versions of many 16th-17th C. English books and pamphlets. Links designated "[eebo]"
Avalon project [Avalon
documents] maintains html documents at at Yale. Links
Many other online archives not mentioned here are even more specialized,
and often have their own labels invented on the spot (e.g. for the Levy
Archive we use the label "[levy]").
All these sites, general and specialized, must be applauded for the real work they
have undertaken to bring
numerous classic works of economics onto the world wide web.
(2) LIST OF TEXTS HOSTED ON THE HET WEBSITE
We have only a very few electronic texts
located on this website. We have not attempted to mirror or
duplicate the efforts of others. However, on occasion we have found that
several online essays were difficult to access and have extracted them and
mirrored them here. Articles hosted on this site are labeled "[HET]". We have also uploaded a few interesting essays which
may be generally hard to find even in a well-equipped library. As most of
these texts were obtained elsewhere on the web, we assume (but have not
been able to verify in every case) that they have been released into the public
domain. If you are the owner of the copyright of any of these texts,
please inform us and we will remove them
(A) Major Texts on this site
The following electronic texts
on this website (in rough chronological order):
- Antonio Serra (1613) Breve Trattato delle cause che
possono fare abbondare li regni d'oro e d'artgento dove non sono miniere,
con applicazione al Regno di Napoli, [HTML]
- Veron de Forbonnais, (1767) Principes et observations
économiques, Edition extracted from Eugène Daire, editor, 1847, Melanges d'économie
politique, 173-258 [PDF]
- [Anon, Marquis de Condorcet] (n.d.)
Monopole et Monopoleur, articles extraits des suppléments d'un
dictionnaire très-connu, written c.1775, publication date unclear.
Edition extracted from Eugène Daire, editor, 1847, Melanges d'économie
politique, p.459-70 [pdf]
- Marquis de Condorcet (1775) Réflexions sur la jurisprudence criminelle.
edition extracted from Eugène Daire, editor, 1847, Melanges d'économie
politique, p.471-82 [PDF]
Auguste Walras (1836) "Considérations sur la mesure de la valeur et
sur la fonction de métaux precieux et l'appréciation de la richesse
sociale", p.243-74 (Part 1),
(Part 2), Revue mensuelle d'économie politique,
Vol. 5 - PDF, extracted from Gallica.
- [William Stanley Jevons] (1873) "Review
of Macleod's Economical Philosophy", Manchester Guardian, 20 June, 1873,
John Maynard Keynes (1912) "Jevons:
Theory of Political Economy", Economic Journal, vol.22, No. 85 (Mar
1912), pp.78-80 [pdf version]
John Maynard Keynes (1923) A Tract on Monetary Reform, 1924
reprint, London: Macmillan. [pdf
John Maynard Keynes (1924) "Alfred
Marshall, 1824-1924", Economic Journal, vol. 34, No.135 (Sep 1924), pp.311-372 [pdf
John Maynard Keynes (1925) "Am
I a Liberal?",. Nation & Athenaeum, 1925, Part I (August 8,
p.563-4) and Part II (August 15, p.587-8)
John Maynard Keynes and Hubert D.
Henderson, (1929) Can Lloyd George
Do It? An examination of the liberal pledge. London:: The Nation &
Athenaeum [pdf version]
John Maynard Keynes (1933)
"A Monetary Theory of Production",
1933, Der Stand und die nächste Zukunft der Konjunkturforschung: Festschrift
für Arthur Spiethoff. Munich: Duncker & Humboldt, pp.123-25.
John Maynard Keynes (1939) "Professor
Tinbergen's Method", Economic Journal, Vol.49 No.195 (Sep, 1939), pp.558-577 [pdf
John Maynard Keynes (1944) "Note by Lord
Keynes", Economic Journal, volume 54, No. 215 (Dec 1944), p.429-30. [pdf
(B) Minor Texts
The following minor reviews and notices of works of interest are located on
- "Notice sur Forbonnais" by Eugène Daire, 1847, in Melanges d'économie
politique, Paris: Guillaumin, v.1 p.167-171 [PDF]
- "Notice sur Condillac" by Eugène Daire, 1847, in Melanges d'économie
politique, Paris: Guillaumin v,.1 p.243-245 [PDF]
- "Notice sur Condorcet" by Eugène Daire, 1847, in Melanges d'économie
politique, Paris: Guillaumin, v.1, p.451-458 [PDF]
- "Notice sur Necker" by Gustave de
Molinari, 1848, in Melanges d'économie
politique, Paris: Guillaumin, v.2 p.205-210 [PDF]
- Études sur Cournot by Gaston Milhaud, 1927 [PDF]