"The Bookworm" by A. Merzel


(1) Online Text Archives
    (A) General Archives
    (B) Specialized Archives
(2) List of Texts hosted on the HET website
    (A) Major Texts
    (B) Minor Texts

The HET website is a not a depository of articles or books themselves (save for a few hard-to-find examples - see list).  For the most part, it merely links to where copies are available elsewhere online, in online text archives constructed by others.


The availability of electronic books and articles has greatly expanded since we launched this website back in the late 1990s.  At the time, there were few sources of economics books online, notably Roderick Hay's depository at McMaster University (and is mirrors), and generalist text sites like Gutenburg.  Formatting was usually in .txt or .html. 

The new expanded version of the HET website (2015) now also gathers sources from major online depositories (Googlebooks, Archive.org, Gallica, etc.).  So instead of a few thousand, we now link to tens of thousands of online books and articles.

As a policy, the HET website tries to ensure that all online texts it links to are freely available to all researchers, both academic and non-academic.  That means that we do not link to books and articles behind paywalls of institutional restrictions. We also do not link to commercial sites, publisher sites, sites requiring complicated registrations, etc. Every link you follow should lead to a freely-available version of the text.. 

Do note, however, that the HET website was constructed and hosted in the United States, and is optimized for users with US-based internet addresses.  We have since learned  that some online archives have IP-restrictions depending on country, so some users with non-US IPs may not be able to access the same free texts and may experience some frustration.   We realized this a bit late in the process, and are currently trying to rectify that by providing alternative options where we can.  This is still on-going, so we ask for patience.  In the meantime, rest assured that if the link is here, then the book or article is freely available to American IPs, and can be accessed by virtual network. Also keep in mind that a lot book archives are now mirrored by Archive.org, which doesn't seem to have country restrictions.

There is no single comprehensive list of external online texts.  Rather, most of the online texts are linked via the individual economist profile pages.  Scroll down to "Major works of ...." section, and the links there should lead to online versions of the text.  We have also linked to additional texts in the "Resources on..." sections at the bottom of the page.  External texts are also linked at the bottom of the school of thought pages.  For general resources on the history of economic thought, see our general links page.

Frequently, there are multiple online versions of the same text.  We make an effort to provide as many as we can find.  Because we do not know the preference of the user, we try not to impose a particular source on the title, but gathered the multitude of available links via coded labels ("[ ]") at the end of the title (e.g. [bk], [av], [McM], etc.), and let the reader pick his favorite version.  Because scholars are a finicky bunch, we have made the extra effort to track down the original version of an article or book. Where a book has multiple editions, we have tried to find links to every edition available. The label codes refer to the online archive or site where the text is located.

(A) General archives

  • Google Books [Google Books] has been our major source of new links, and our first preference in forging links.  A link to Googlebooks is normally designated simply "[bk]" or sometimes "[gb]", or occasionally, if an article, then by the page number "[p.123]" or volume number "[v.1]" or by edition number "[3rd ed.]" 
    • Note to non-US users: Googlebooks treats countries differentially depending on  national copyright law.  This website was constructed and hosted in the US, and Googlebooks accessible to users in the US (or using US IP addresses) are not necessarily available to non-US users (using foreign IP addresses).  As a result, some of our links may not work for non-US readers.  Google seems to have set up a "wall" so that non-US users (e.g. from EU countries) cannot access any books written after 1872, whereas US users can access books printed up until 1923.  The extra fifty years are not accessible outside the US.  The reason for this seems to be differences in copyright law. Although US and EU have same copyright length ("Life plus 75 years"), US copyright law imposes a memory barrier at 1923 so that copyright only applies for books written after that, whereas EU copyright law has no initial memory barrier (paradoxically the EU laws were introduced to "harmonize" with US law, but it turns out we end up with disharmony!).  The Googlebooks decision to impose a 1872 date as a foreign wall is apparently arbitrary - Googlebooks doesn't verify the copyright status of individual books, so there are books in public domain in the EU and elsewhere after 1872 which Googlebooks does not let access.  It seems like they just introduced a wholesale massive wall at 1872, on the speculative bet that nobody who wrote a book before 1872 would have still been alive 70 years ago.  It also seems Canadian users (where copyright law is Life + 50)  have a different "foreign wall" (set around 1884) on the same logic.     
  • Archive.org [Archive.org] has been the main alternative to Googlebooks.  A link to a text on Archive.org is normally designated "[av]".  Besides is own texts, Archive.org also mirrors a lot of other archives. It is frequently the cases that foreign IPs who cannot access Googlebooks, can nonetheless access the same title in Archive.org.
  • Hathi trust [Hathi Trust]  library compiles electronic versions of books collected at various American universities, notably Michigan, Cornell, California and Ohio State.  Links to it are generally denoted "[hth]".  Many of the articles they have are also available at Googlebooks and Archive.org. The online books page at the University of Pennsylvania usually provides author-based links to the Hathi trust versions.
  • Gallica [Gallica] hosted by the Bibliotheque Nationale de France in Paris, is an especially excellent source for French language books.  However, sometime in the past few years, the BNF changed its url addresses to Gallica texts, so that some old links on this site no longer work. Where these have been verified and updated, the link is denoted "[bnf]". I have not gone through them all yet, so you may occasionally stumble on a bad link - but rest assured the electronic version is somewhere on Gallica.
  • Jstor [Jstor] is a major site of articles in academic journals.  However, most of Jstor is behind institutional restrictions.  As a matter of policy, we do not link to articles behind paywalss or restrictions.  Every text linked on our website must be accessible to the general public, and not merely to universities or companies who pay for access.  As a result, we have not forged links to the Jstor database.  However, Jstor has recently made many of its earlier volumes of journals (before 1920 or thereabouts) accessible to the general public.  Links are made to these, and denoted "[js]" (note that versions of the publicly-accessible Jstor articles are also available at Archive.org; just takes a little more digging).
  • Persee [Persee] is a major site of articles in French academic journals.  Many are not institutionally restricted, and where available are denoted "[pers]"
  • Gutenberg Project [Gutenberg] provides many texts in html format. These are usually designated "[gut]".
  • "Making of America" digital libraries at Cornell and Michigan  contains mostly jpg-versions of American books and journals. They are not mirrors, but seem to be slightly specialized.  MOA-Cornell contains mostly northern US texts, while MOA-Michigan seems to focus on southern texts.  Both are labeled "[moa]".  
  • OPACplus [Opac], available from the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek, contains many German-language facsimile texts, and is designated "[bay]"

(B) Specialized archives:

  • MacMaster Archive [McMaster Archive] of the History of Economic Thought links to html-based texts at the late Roderick Hay's pioneering depository at MacMaster University are designated "[McM]".  Links to its UK Mirror by Tony Brewer (Bristol), are usually designated "[bris]".
  • Taieb's website [Le Jardin aux Sentiers qui Bifurquent], a site created by Paulette Taieb, has many html-texts on the history of economic thought.  Links to these are designated "[taieb]".
  • LibertyFund seems to maintain two archives of html texts related to the history of economic thought.  There is the "Library of Economics and Liberty" (Econlib.org) and the "Online Library of Liberty" (Oll.libertyfund.org).  Links to the LibertyFund libraries are denoted "[lib]"
  • Marxist Internet Archive at Marxists.org (Marxists Internet Archive) provides many links to the html text version of English translations of the works of classical Marxist writers, and links to it are designated as "[mia]"  It also contains some non-English versions.  There is a similar German-language site (Marxismus-Leninismus Werke) and links to these are usually designated "[mle]
  • Perseus [Perseus Digital Library] at Tufts provides html-versions of many texts, and is especially good with Ancient Greek & Roman Classics, and designated "[prs]".  A similar source of Ancient html texts is the Internet Classics Archive at MIT, usually designated "[mit]".
  • Mises Institute (Mises Institute Library) library at Mises Institute provides links to many html and pdf versions of texts, mostly by Austrian writers.  Links to these are generally denoted "[mis]".
  • Cowles Foundation [Cowles Foundation] provides electronic versions of many of its publications and discussion papers. These are designated "[cwls]".   It also used to provide a magnificent reprint series online, but many of these links recently deprecated (2016).  We maintain them temporarily in the hope they might go back up. 
  • NBER [NBER] the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) provides electronic versions of many of its older publications, as well as working papers.  These are designated "[nber]".
  • Oxford Text Archive [Oxford Text Archive] provides many html text. Links are designated "[ota]"
  • Constitutional Classics [Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics] provided by Constitution.org contains many html texts of classical political science works in English. These are usually designated "[con]"
  • Athena e-texts [Athena], compiled by Pierre Perraud of classic works, mostly in French, in html text, .  Links are designated "[ath]".
  • EEBO [Early English Books Online] maintained at the University of Michigan, provides html versions of many 16th-17th C. English books and pamphlets. Links designated "[eebo]"
  • Avalon project [Avalon documents] maintains html documents at at Yale.  Links designated "[ava]"
  • Many other online archives not mentioned here are even more specialized, and often have their own labels invented on the spot (e.g. for the Levy Instiute's Minsky Archive we use the label "[levy]").

All these sites, general and specialized, must be applauded for the real work they have undertaken to bring numerous classic works of economics onto the world wide web.  


We have only a very few electronic texts located on this website.   We have not attempted to mirror or duplicate the efforts of others.  However, on occasion we have found that several online essays were difficult to access and have extracted them and mirrored them here.  Articles hosted on this site are labeled "[HET]".  We have also uploaded a few interesting essays which may be generally hard to find even in a well-equipped library.  As most of these texts were obtained elsewhere on the web, we assume (but have not been able to verify in every case) that they have been released into the public domain.  If you are the owner of the copyright of any of these texts, please inform us and we will remove them immediately.

(A) Major Texts on this site

The following electronic texts on this website (in rough chronological order): 

  • Antonio Serra (1613) Breve Trattato delle cause che possono fare abbondare li regni d'oro e d'artgento dove non sono miniere, con applicazione al Regno di Napoli,  [HTML]
  • Veron de Forbonnais, (1767)  Principes et observations économiques,  Edition extracted from Eugène Daire, editor, 1847, Melanges d'économie politique, 173-258 [PDF]
  • [Anon, Marquis de Condorcet] (n.d.) Monopole et Monopoleur, articles extraits des suppléments d'un dictionnaire très-connu, written c.1775, publication date unclear.  Edition extracted from Eugène Daire, editor, 1847, Melanges d'économie politique, p.459-70 [pdf]
  • Marquis de Condorcet (1775) Réflexions sur la jurisprudence criminelle. edition extracted from Eugène Daire, editor, 1847, Melanges d'économie politique,  p.471-82 [PDF]
  • Auguste Walras (1836) "Considérations sur la mesure de la valeur et sur la fonction de métaux precieux et l'appréciation de la richesse sociale",  p.243-74 (Part 1), p.312-341 (Part 2), Revue mensuelle d'économie politique, Vol. 5 - PDF, extracted from Gallica.
  • [William Stanley Jevons] (1873) "Review of Macleod's Economical Philosophy", Manchester Guardian, 20 June, 1873, p.7 [HTML]
  • John Maynard Keynes (1912) "Jevons: Theory of Political Economy", Economic Journal, vol.22, No. 85 (Mar 1912), pp.78-80 [pdf version]
  • John Maynard Keynes (1923) A Tract on Monetary Reform, 1924 reprint, London: Macmillan. [pdf version only]
  • John Maynard Keynes (1924) "Alfred Marshall, 1824-1924", Economic Journal, vol. 34, No.135 (Sep 1924), pp.311-372 [pdf version only]
  • John Maynard Keynes (1925) "Am I a Liberal?",. Nation & Athenaeum, 1925, Part I (August 8, p.563-4) and Part II (August 15, p.587-8)
  • John Maynard Keynes and Hubert D. Henderson, (1929) Can Lloyd George Do It? An examination of the liberal pledge.  London:: The Nation & Athenaeum [pdf version]
  • John Maynard Keynes (1933) "A Monetary Theory of Production", 1933, Der Stand und die nächste Zukunft der Konjunkturforschung: Festschrift für Arthur Spiethoff. Munich: Duncker & Humboldt, pp.123-25.
  • John Maynard Keynes (1939) "Professor Tinbergen's Method", Economic Journal, Vol.49 No.195 (Sep, 1939), pp.558-577 [pdf version]
  • John Maynard Keynes (1944) "Note by Lord Keynes", Economic Journal, volume 54, No. 215 (Dec 1944), p.429-30. [pdf version]

(B) Minor Texts

The following minor reviews and notices of works of interest are located on this website.  

  • "Notice sur Forbonnais" by Eugène Daire, 1847, in Melanges d'économie politique, Paris: Guillaumin, v.1  p.167-171 [PDF]
  • "Notice sur Condillac" by Eugène Daire, 1847, in Melanges d'économie politique, Paris: Guillaumin v,.1  p.243-245 [PDF]
  • "Notice sur Condorcet" by Eugène Daire, 1847, in Melanges d'économie politique, Paris: Guillaumin, v.1, p.451-458 [PDF]
  • "Notice sur Necker" by Gustave de Molinari, 1848, in Melanges d'économie politique, Paris: Guillaumin, v.2 p.205-210 [PDF]
  • Études sur Cournot by Gaston Milhaud, 1927 [PDF]
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