Profile Major Works Resources

Joan Violet Maurice Robinson, 1903-1983.

Photo of J. Robinson

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One of the most prominent economists of the century, Joan Robinson incarnated the "Cambridge School" in most of its guises in the 20th century: she started as a cutting-edge Marshallian and after 1936; as one of the earliest and most ardent Keynesians and finally as one of the leaders of the Neo-Ricardian and Post Keynesian schools.  Robinson's contributions to economics are far too numerous to elucidate fairly. Unlike most economists, she was not a "one idea" person, but rather made many many fundamental contributions to very different areas of economics.

She was born Joan Violet Maurice in Surrey, England to a controversial family.  Her father, Major General Sir Frederick Barton Maurice, gained notoriety in the aftermath of World War I by accusing Prime Minister Lloyd George of misleading parliament and nation during war.  

After being educated at St. Paul's Girls School in London, Joan began studying economics at Girton College, Cambridge in 1921.  After a thorough soaking in Marshallian economics at the hands of Pigou, she graduated in 1925 and, one year later, married Austin Robinson, a fellow economist at Corpus Christi College in Cambridge.  In 1926, the Robinsons went to Gujarat, India.  There, she got involved in a research committee on Anglo-Indian economic relations.  They returned to Cambridge in 1928, when Austin Robinson was appointed assistant professor of economics.  For this reason (and others), Joan Robinson failed to obtain her own separate appointment and had to content herself with a rather informal relationship with the university until 1931, when she finally became junior assistant lecturer in economics.  Despite her well-known abilities and achievements, she would proceed very slowly along the Cambridge academic ladder.  

The Cambridge the Robinsons left behind was quite different from the Cambridge they returned to.  The economics of Alfred Marshall had been profoundly shaken by the 1926 critique of of Piero Sraffa.  Joan Robinson made decisive contributions in two directions in the hope of recasting and thereby "saving" Neoclassical economics: imperfect competition and general equilibrium.   

Inspired by Piero Sraffa's "pregnant suggestion" that monopoly, rather than competition, was the "general" case, Joan Robinson's wrote her 1933 treatise introducing the theory of imperfect competition to economics. She showed how to handle production theory via the marginal revenue curve (introduced here by. Kahn), away from the extremes of monopoly and perfect competition.  Her 1934 follow-up articles emphasized the interrelationship between the "special case" of perfect competition and the marginal productivity theory of distributionHarvard's Edward Chamberlin independently discovered the similar theory of "monopolistic" competition, where the emphasis was on product differentiation.  Chamberlin itched for a fight, but never got one.  Robinson was quick to move on beyond her theory - - in spite of its success in the textbooks. 

The second avenue was sketched out in her famous 1941 article.  Here, she showed how "rising supply price" can be derived from a general equilibrium context and thus dodge Sraffa's critique (which is why it elicited so much praise from Jacob Viner). This, together with her discovery of the elasticity of substitution, were her seminal contributions to the Paretian Revival of Neoclassical economics.  

Joan Robinson's early works catapulted her to the forefront of the economics profession -- but rather than follow-up on her own revolution, she decided to become the handmaiden for someone else's.  In 1931, she  -- together with her husband Austin Robinson, her intellectual companion Richard Kahn, her mentor Piero Sraffa and research student James Meade  -- formed the famous "Cambridge Circus" to discuss John Maynard Keynes's recent Treatise on Money.  Over the years, the group's discussions were channeled to Keynes himself -- who wrote his subsequent General Theory in 1936 in light of the Circus' debates. Robinson's famous 1933 articles precipitously announced what was to come.  In the aftermath,  Joan Robinson wrote two faithful book expositions (1937a, 1937b) of Keynes's work, making her one of the main propagators of the Keynesian Revolution in economics.  

Joan Robinson was appointed a full lecturer at Cambridge in 1937 and somehow found time to give birth to two daughters in the interim.  It was around this time that she came into contact with Michal Kalecki, whose own contributions seemed to have anticipated (and, in her view, superseded) Keynes's.  Prompted by Kalecki, Robinson soon set out to tackle the work of Karl Marx. Robinson's 1942 Essay was among the first studies to take Marx seriously as an economist. It effectively help draw Marxian economics from its half-chewed existence in political ideology.  Although unimpressed by the labor theory of value, Robinson identified Marx's "extended scheme of reproduction" as his most exciting contribution.

In the 1940s and 1950s, Robinson's activities continued apace.  During the war, she had worked on various economic committees for the Labour Party and the British government.  She made several official trips to the Soviet Union, China and Ceylon.

In 1949, Robinson was promoted to reader at Cambridge and settled back on her research.  Inspired by Roy Harrod and Michal Kalecki, she began thinking about the "next step" of the Keynesian Revolution: namely, the "generalization of the General Theory", i.e. extending Keynes's theory from the static short-run to the dynamic long-run (the "Oxbridge program").  She announced the program in her 1952 book. 

In 1954, Joan Robinson produced her famous article on the problems of capital aggregation, generally considered to be the first shot in the Cambridge Capital Controversy that would rock economics in the 1960s.  In a nutshell, Robinson pointed out that when we have a heterogeneous collection of capital goods, we are forced to define the  "quantity of capital" in value terms.  But prices of produced goods (like capital) are determined by costs of production which are, in turn, determined by wages and profits from equilibrium in factor markets.  This is already the problem. The entire purpose of a unit of measurement of capital is to help us determine the quantity of capital demanded and supplied and yet in order to obtain this unit we already need to know its price. Hence, we are using price to determine a quantity ("capital") that we are then going to use to determine price! The reasoning is circular.

How problematic is this?  This is where Robinson provided the next few steps.  In what she called the "Ruth Cohen Curiosum" (Real Wicksell Effects), she showed how it could yield bizarre relationship between choice of technique and rate of profit.  This was introduced in her 1956 The Accumulation of Capital, which she hoped to be her great contribution to the Oxbridge program, to extend Keynes's theory to account for long run issues.  This was followed up by a more lucid exposition of growth theory (1962).  The concept of a variety of "golden age" growth paths (including Golden Rule growth -- which she called the "Neo-classical Theorem") were laid out.  Her work on growth paralleled and complemented that of fellow Cantabrigian, Nicholas Kaldor. Together, they developed what became known as "Cambridge growth theory".  

During the 1960s Cambridge Capital Controversy, Robinson led the Cambridge assault on the American Neo-Keynesians, but widened her attack to assault the entire Neoclassical theory of production and distribution.  Robinson is thus partly responsible, together with Sraffa (1960), for the subsequent Neo-Ricardian or "classical revival" at Cambridge.

Towards the end of her life, Robinson's work concentrated mostly on methodological problems in economics (notably, stressing her dissatisfaction with "equilibrium" theories) and trying to revive the original message of Keynes's General Theory.  Her many popular writings (1962, 1966, 1970, 1971, 1978, 1979, 1980) brought her an even greater pominence with a wider public. She was invited to address the American Economic Association in 1971, wherein she gave one of her most provocative deliveries.  An attempt to bring the Cambridge approach to a wider audience culminated in the publication of a rather unique "principles" textbook with John Eatwell in 1973, but it failed to make a substantial headway.

Robinson was also intensely interested in problems in underdeveloped and developing countries - a natural outgrowth of her work on growth - and made substantial contributions in that direction as well. However, in later years, Robinson embarrassed many foes and friends alike with her far-too-laudatory comments of Mao Zedong and the Chinese cultural revolution.

Robinson joined the British Academy in 1958 and was elected fellow of Newnham College in 1962.  In 1965, she finally became a full professor and a fellow of Girton College.  In 1979, she became the first female fellow of King's College. Her lack of a Nobel prize has been considered one of the saddest "oversights" of the modern economics profession - or one of the most outrageous cases of deliberate neglect. Nonetheless, the real "prize" is better than any Nobel: while other prominent economists drop into obscurity, her legendary works have maintained their analytical and inspirational hold on economics. A mere glance at her eclectic and voluminous collection of works remains perhaps among the better testaments to both the depth and breadth of the impact Joan Robinson had on economic theory as a whole.

Despite her many contributions to high theory, Robinson never mastered mathematics.  She even relied on others (notably  Kahn) for her simplest diagrams.  In a famous incident, she declined an invitation from Ragnar Frisch in 1958 to become vice-president of the Econometric Society.  In explaining her refusal, she pointed out that she could not very well oversee a journal that she couldn't read!  Her negligence was partly motivated by her suspicion of the increasing mathematization of economics.  As she put in a favorite comment, ""I never learned math, so I had to think."  Her occasionally acerbic wit has made her a source of several famous pithy quotes, .e.g  "The purpose of studying economics is not to acquire a set of ready-made answers to economic questions, but to learn how to avoid being deceived by economists." (1955) and
"economics limps along with one foot in untested hypotheses and the other in untestable slogans" (1962).

Joan Robinson died on August 5, 1983, within a month of Piero Sraffa.

 

  


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Major Works of Joan Robinson

  • Economics is a Serious Subject: The apologies of an economist to the mathematician, the scientist and the plain man, 1932.
  • "Imperfect Competition and Falling Supply Price", 1932, EJ
  • "The Imperfection of the Market: Reply to G. Shove", 1933, EJ
  • "Review of Wicksteed, Coordination of the Laws of Distribution", 1933, EJ
  • The Economics of Imperfect Competition , 1933
  • "Decreasing Costs: A Reply to Mr. Harrod", 1933, EJ
  • "Theory of Money and the Analysis of Output", 1933, RES.
  • "A Parable on Savings and Investment", 1933, Economica.
  • "Review of da Empoli's Theory of Economic Equilibrium", 1933, EJ
  • "Mr. Fraser on Taxation and Returns", 1934, RES
  • "Review of Meade's Rate of Interest", 1934, EJ
  • "Review of Jones and Clark's Increasing Return", 1934, JPE
  • "Euler's Theorem and the Problem of Distribution", 1934, EJ.
  • "What is Perfect Competition?", 1934, QJE.
  • "An Fundamental Objection to Laissez Faire", 1935, EJ
  • "Review of Ellis' German Monetary Theory", 1935, EJ
  • "Review of Einzig's Bankers, Statesmen and Economists", 1936, EJ
  • "Dr. Machlup's Commonsense of the Elasticity of Substitution", 1936, RES
  • "Banking Policy and the Exchanges", 1936, RES
  • "Disguised Unemployment", 1936, EJ.
  • "Rejoinder (to H. Barger)", 1936, EJ
  • "The Long Period Theory of Employment", 1936, ZfN.
  • "Some Reflections on Marxist Economics: Review of Strachey's Nature of Capitalist Crisis", 1936, EJ 
  • "Review of Harrod's Trade Cycle", 1936, EJ
  • "Review of Britain without Capitalists", 1936, EJ
  • "Review of Radford's Patterns of Economic Activity", 1936, EJ
  • Introduction to the Theory of Employment, 1937
  • Essays on the the Theory of Employment, 1937.
  • "Review of A.W. Knight's Abolish Slumps", 1937, EJ
  • "Review of S.E. Harris's Exchange Depreciation", 1937, EJ
  • "The Classification of Inventions", 1938, RES
  • "The Concept of Hoarding", 1938, EJ.
  • "Review of Bresciani-Turroni's Economics of Inflation", 1938, EJ
  • "Review of Myrdal's Monetary Equilibrium", 1939, EJ
  • "Review of Lester's Monetary Experiments", 1940, EJ
  • "Review of Crowther and Horsefield on the Ways and Means of War", 1940, EJ
  • "Rising Supply Price", 1941, Economica.
  • "Review of Bretherton et al., Public Investment and the Trade Cycle", 1941, EJ
  • "Review of Dobb's Soviet Economy and the War", 1941, EJ
  • "Marx on Unemployment", 1941, EJ
  • An Essay on Marxian Economics , 1942
  • "Review of Pearson's Full Employment", 1942, EJ
  • "Review of S.E. Harris's Economics of Social Security", 1942, EJ 
  • "Review of Wilson's Fluctuations in Income and Employment", 1942, EJ 
  • "Review of Borden's Economic Effects of Advertising", 1942, Economica
  • "Review of Norris' Theory of Consumer Demand", 1943, EJ
  • Private Enterprise or Public Control, 1943
  • The Problem of Full Employment, 1943 [pdf]
  • "Planning Full Employment", 1943, The Times
  • "Review of Schumpeter's Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy", 1943, EJ
  • "International Currency Proposals", 1943, EJ
  • "The United States in the World Economy", 1944, EJ
  • "Review of Nurkse's International Currency Experience", 1945, EJ
  • "Review of Bennett's American Patent System", 1945, Economica
  • "Review of Oxford's Economics of Full Employment", 1945, EJ
  • "Obstacles to Full Employment", 1946, Nationalokonomisk Tidskrift.
  • "The Pure Theory of International Trade", 1946-7, RES.
  • "Marx and Keynes", 1948, Critica Economica. [English trans. in 1951 CEP]
  • "Review of Lerner and Graham's Planning and Paying for Full Employment", 1948, EJ
  • "La theorie generale d'emploi", 1948, Econ Appliq
  • "The Theory of Planning: Review of Dobb", 1949, Soviet Studies
  • "Mr. Harrod's Dynamics", 1949, EJ
  • "Review of Lynch's Concentration of Economic Power ", 1949, EJ
  • "The Labor Theory of Value: Review of Böhm-Bawerk, Hilferding and Bortkiewicz", 1950, EJ
  • "Exchange Equilibrium", 1950, Econ Internaz
  • "Introduction", 1951, to R. Luxemburg, Accumulation of Capital.
  • "The Rate of Interest", 1951, Econometrica.
  • Collected Economic Papers, Vol. I, 1951.
  • "The Model of an Expanding Economy", 1952, EJ.
  • "Review of Galbraith's American Capitalism", 1952, EJ
  • The Rate of Interest and other essays , 1952.
  • "Generalization of the General Theory", 1952, in The Rate of Interest and other essays.
  • "A Comment (on Chamberlin)", 1952, EJ
  • "Imperfect Competition Revisited", 1953, EJ
  • On Re-Reading Marx, 1953
  • "The Production Function and the Theory of Capital", 1953-4, RES.
  • "The Production Function and the Theory of Capital: A reply (to Solow)", 1955-6, RES.
  • "The Production Function", 1955, EJ
  • "Marx, Marshall and Keynes", 1955 (pub. in 1960 CEP)
  • The Accumulation of Capital, 1956.
  • "The Industry and the Market", 1956, EJ
  • "Notes on the Theory of Economic Development", 1956, Annales de la Faculte de Liege.
  • "Review of Marx, Poverty of Philosophy", 1956, EJ.
  • "Review of Strachey, Contemporary Capitalism", 1956, EJ
  • "Review of Nemmers, Hobson and Underconsumption", 1957, EJ
  • "India, 1955: Unemployment and planning", 1957, Capital.
  • "The Philosophy of Prices", 1958, Manchester School.
  • "The Real Wicksell Effect", 1958, EJ.
  • "Some Problems of Definition and Measurement of Capital", 1959, Oxford EP.
  • "Accumulation and the Production Function", 1959, EJ.
  • "Letter to the Editor (Reply to Klein)", 1959, Econometrica
  • "Review of Kurihara, Keynesian Theory of Economic Development", 1959, EJ
  • Exercises in Economic Analysis, 1960.
  • Collected Economic Papers, Volume II, 1960.
  • "Review of Hughes and Luard's Economic Development in Communist China", 1960, EJ
  • "Review of Keierstad, Capital, Interest and Profits", 1960, Canadian JE.
  • "General Liquidity", 1960, The Banker.
  • "Review of Kuznets's Six Lectures", 1961, JPE
  • "Review of Tsuru's Has Capitalism Changed?", 1961, JPE.
  • "Equilibrium Growth Models: Review of Meade's Neoclassical Theory of Economic Growth", 1961, AER.
  • "Own Rates of Interest", 1961, EJ.
  • "Prelude to a Critique of Economic Theory", 1961, Oxford EP.
  • "The Basic Theory of Normal Prices", 1962, 
  • "Comment (on Solow)", 1962, RES
  • Essays in the Theory of Economic Growth , 1962.
  • "A Neo-Classical Theorem", 1962, RES.
  • Economic Philosophy: An essay on the progress of economic thought, 1962. [pdf]
  • "The Basic Theory of Normal Price", 1962, QJE.
  • "Review of Johnson's Money, Trade and Growth", 1962, EJ
  • "Review of Kirby's Contemporary China", 1962, EJ
  • "Review of Montias's Central Planning in Poland", 1963, EJ
  • "Review of Maynard's Economic Development and the Price Level", 1963, EJ
  • "Learning by Doing: A Further Note (on Arrow)", 1963, RES
  • "Findlay's Robinsonian Model of Accumulation: A Comment", 1963, QJE
  • "Solow on the Rate of Return", 1964, EJ.
  • "Factor Prices Note Equalized (on Mihnas)", 1964, QJE.
  • "The Final End of Laissez-Faire", 1964, ???
  • "Consumer's Sovereignty in a Planned Economy", 1964, Essays in Honor of Oskar Lange.
  • "China, 1963: The Communes", 1964, Political Quarterly.
  • "Review of Zeitlin's Life's Value in Cash", 1964, EJ
  • "Review of Chou's Chinese Inflation", 1964, EJ
  • "Pre-Keynesian Theory After Keynes", 1964, Australian EP.
  • Collected Economic Papers, Volume III, 1965.
  • "Review of Liu and Yeh's Economy of the Chinese Mainland", 1965, EJ
  • "Korea, 1964: Economic miracle", 1965, MLR.
  • "Piero Sraffa and the Rate of Exploitation", 1965, New Left Review.
  • "Introduction", 1966, in M. Kalecki, Studies in the Theory of Business Cycles.
  • The New Mercantilism: an inaugural lecture, 1966
  • Economics: An awkward corner, 1966.
  • "New Results in an Old Framework: Comment on Samuelson and Modigliani", 1966, RES.
  • "Review of Das-Gupta's Planning and Economic Growth", 1966, EJ
  • "The Soviet Collective Farm as a Producer Cooperative: Comment (on Domar)", 1967, AER
  • "The Badly Behaved Production Function", with K.A. Naqvi, 1967 QJE.
  • "Growth and the Theory of Distribution", 1967, Annals of Public and Cooperative Economy.
  • "Marginal Productivity", 1967, Indian Economic Review.
  • "Smoothing Out Keynes: Review of Lekachman", 1967 NYRB (link).
  • "Review of Grossman, Economic Systems", 1967, EJ
  • "Review of Leontief's Essays in Economics", 1968, Econometrica
  • "The Poverty of Nations", 1968, Cambridge Quarterly.
  • "The Theory of Value Reconsidered", 1969, Australian EP.
  • "A Further Note (on Nuti)", 1969, RES.
  • "A Model for Accumulation Proposed by J. E. Stiglitz", 1969, EJ 
  • "Review of Leijonhufvud's On Keynesian Economics", 1969, EJ
  • "Macroeconomics of Unbalanced Growth: A Belated Comment (on Baumol)", 1969, AER
  • Freedom and Necessity, 1970.
  • The Cultural Revolution in China, 1970
  • "Harrod After 21 Years", 1970, EJ.
  • "Quantity Theories, Old and New: Comment", 1970, JMCB
  • "Review of Ferguson's Neoclassical Theory of Production and Distribution", 1970, EJ
  • "Capital Theory Up to Date: Review of Ferguson", 1970, Canadian JE
  • "Foreword", 1970, to  E. L. Wheelwright and Bruce McFarlane, The Chinese Road to Socialism: Economics of the Cultural Revolution
  • "The Existence of Aggregate Production Functions: Comment (on F.M. Fisher)", 1971, Econometrica
  • "Continuity and the Rate of Return", 1971, EJ
  • "Capital Theory up to Date: A Reply (to Ferguson)", 1971, Canadian JE
  • "The Measure of Capital: The End of the Controversy", 1971, EJ
  • Economic Heresies: Some old-fashioned questions in economic theory, 1971.
  • "The Second Crisis of Economic Theory", 1972, AER.
  • An Introduction to Modern Economics, with John Eatwell, 1973.
  • "Review of Brus's Market in a Socialist Economy", 1973, EJ
  • "Formalistic Marxism and Ecology without Classes", 1973, Journal of Contemporary Asia.
  • "Ideology and Analysis", 1973, in Sozialismus, Geschichte und Wirtschaft.
  • "Samuelson and Marx", 1973, AER.
  • Collected Economic Papers, Vol. IV, 1973.
  • "Foreword", 1973, in J. Kregel, Reconstruction of Political Economy.
  • "History versus Equilibrium", 1974, Thames Papers in PE.
  • "The Unimportance of Reswitching", 1975, QJE.
  • "Reswitching: A reply (to Solow)", 1975, QJE
  • "Review of Pasinetti, Growth and Income Distribution", 1976, EJ
  • "Michal Kalecki: A Neglected Prophet", 1976, NYRB (link).
  • "Introduction", 1976, to M. Kalecki, Essays on Developing Economies.
  • "What Are the Questions?", 1977, JEL.
  • "Employment and the Choice of Technique", 1977, Society and Change.
  • "The Labour Theory of Value", 1977, MLR.
  • Contributions to Modern Economics, 1978.
  • "Keynes and Ricardo", 1978, JPKE.
  • "Understanding the Economic Crisis: Review of Heilbroner", 1978, NYRB (link)
  • "Morality and Economics", 1978, Challenge.
  • The Generalization of the General Theory and Other Essays, 1979.
  • "Kalecki and the Economics of Capitalism", 1977, Oxford Bulletin of Statistics.
  • "Review of Patinkin and Leith's Keynes, Cambridge and the General Theory", 1979, Canadian JE.
  • "Thinking About Thinking", 1979,
  • "Keynes Today", with F. Cripps, 1979, JPKE.
  • Aspects of Development and Underdevelopment, 1979.
  • Collected Economic Papers, Vol. V, 1979.
  • The Generalization of the General Theory and Other Essays, 1979. (Reprint of Robinson, 1952)
  • "Garegnani on Effective Demand", 1979, Cambridge JE.
  • What Are the Questions? And other essays, 1980.
  • "Review of Moggridge's Collected Writings of J.M. Keynes", 1980, EJ
  • Further Contributions to Modern Economics, 1980
  • "Misunderstandings in the Theory of Production", 1982, in Feiwel, editor, Samuelson and Modern Economics.
  • "The Arms Race", 1982, in McMurrin, editor, Tanner Lectures on Human Values.
  • "The Economics of Destruction", 1983, MLR.
  • "The Theory of Normal Prices and Reconstruction of Price Theory", 1985, in Feiwel, editor, Issues in Contemporary Macroeconomics.
  • "Ideology and Logic", with F. Wilkinson, 1985, in Vicarelli, editor, Keynes's Relevance Today.
  • "Open letter from a Keynesian to a Marxist" [delong]

 


HET

 

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Resources on Joan Robinson.

  • Joan Robinson Portraits: Young Joan Robinson (with a Princess Leia hairstyle!); Older Joan Robinson; Another Joan Robinson.
  • Joan Robinson obituary at NY Times, 1983
  • Joan Robinson Archives at Cambridge
  • "Joan Robinson" by Luigi Pasinetti, 1987, in Eatwell, Milgate and Newman, editors, The New Palgrave [onl]
  • "Joan Robinson" by David R. Henderson, Concise Encyclopedia of Economics at Liberty Fund.
  • Joan Robinson and the Americans, by M.S. Turner, 1989
  • "Joan Robinson's views on teaching economics", by Z. Emami 1994, HOPE
  • "Review of Marcuzzo et al's The Economics of Joan Robinson" by Sheila Dow, 1999, HOPE [online]
  • "Mythical Ages and Methodological Scriptures: Joan Robinson's contributions to growth theory" by Peter Skott, 2004 [pdf]
  • "Joan Robinson on History versus Equilibrium" by Donald Harris,  2004 [pdf]
  • Joan Robinson's Economics: A centennial celebration, (ed. Bill Gibson), 2005 [pdf]
  • "Review of Robinson's Centennial", by M.S. Lawlor, 2006 at eh.net
  • The Provocative Joan Robinson: The Making of a Cambridge Economist by Nahid Aslanbeigui and Guy Oakes, 2009
  • "Review of Alsanbegui & Oakes' Robinson", 2009, Times Higher Education [online]
  • "Retrospectives: How Joan Robinson and B. L. Hallward Named Monopsony" by R.J. Thornton, 2004, JEP [pdf]
  • "The Influence of Michal Kalecki on Joan Robinson’s Approach to Economics" by G.C. Harcourt and Peter Kriesler, 2010 [pdf]
  • Robinson on Eugene Rostow's joke, 1965 NY Review of Books. [onl]
  • "Joan Robinson on Harrod's Dynamics" by F.C. Maclachlan [online]
  • Joan Robinson website by Claudia Heller, UNESP (in Portuguese)
  • "Progresso Técnico Segundo Joan Robinson: uma tentativa de sistematização e formalização" by Claudia Heller, UNESP.
  • "On Joan Robinson's abandoment of exploitation" by Dhaniyal Khan, 2015 [nssr]
  • The Joan Robinson Society at Girton College [online]
  • The Joan Robinson Memorial Scholarship at Saddleback College
  • Robinson page at Spartacus
  • Robinson entry at Britannica
  • Wikipedia

 

 
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