The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics

Alfred Nobel, after whom the Bank of Sweden prize is named.

[Note: Part of the HET Website.  This page is not related to or endorsed by the Nobel Foundation, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or any other organization. See the official Nobel Memorial Prize website] 

In 1896, Alfred Nobel, the Swedish industrialist and inventor of dynamite, bequeathed his fortune to a foundation to create an annual prize for person "who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind."   Nobel's will specified prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology/medicine, literature and peace.  These were first awarded in 1901.

In 1969, the Swedish central bank (Sveriges Riksbank) established a prize known as the "Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel", which is commonly shortened to the Nobel Memorial Prize.   The Nobel Memorial Prize has a similar procedure of award selection (by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) as the original Nobel prizes.  It also disburses the same monetary amounts and shares in the formal ceremony.

The Nobel Memorial Prize has been quite controversial since its inception and numerous objections have been raised against it.  The first objection is, of course, that its name causes confusion with the original Nobel prizes created by Alfred Nobel. The usual implication is that economics is either not "scientific" enough or does not contribute to "human advancement" enough to merit the prestige of an award with the Nobel name.  The sentiment, often echoed in wider intellectual circles and the popular press, is shared by many economists themselves.  Indeed, Gunnar Myrdal, after having helped the Riksbank set it up in 1968 and receiving the award himself in 1974, eventually came to publicly regret this.  

The second objection, is that the Bank of Sweden's decision to use the prestigious "Nobel" name catapulted that specific prize to an undue degree of prominence over other honors, such as the AEA Walker's Medal or the Econometric Society's fellowships. Moreover, it has been accused of thrusting economics into a kind of medal race, pitting nations, universities and individual economists against each other.  All this leads to a lot of unnecessary acrimony that distracts and disrupts serious economics research. 

A third objection, and one that has become increasingly louder, is that there is an insufficient number of truly outstanding economists that deserve it.  After the initial splash of glorious names in the 1970s and early 1980s, many have come to argue that the awards made since the 1990s are more disputable.   

This is true to some extent, but also understandable. When the awards began being handed out from 1969 onwards, there were generations upon generations of deserving scholars which had to be quickly awarded before it was too late.  The choices of the 1970s were not really disputed.  By sheer bad luck, giants such as Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Abba Lerner and Don Patinkin never won the award partly because they were unfortunate enough to die too soon.   By the mid-1980s, with the "doubtless" Nobel laureates either already rewarded or dead, it was natural for the awards committee to begin pacing itself somewhat and start scooping gems from a little bit below the cream.  

A fourth objection is that the Nobel awards committee has its own agenda and doles out the awards with an eye to encourage the profession to move in a particular direction.   At the crudest level, some have claimed that it has  a "Chicago School" bias, given the number of economists associated with the University of Chicago that have won the awards (for a breakdown of the awards by nationality and school, click here).  

This is not wholly untrue, but it ought to be placed in context. The Nobel name, of course, lends a powerful platform to the recipients -- and the awards committee has made controversial and idiosyncratic choices which have had a profound impact on the economics profession.  The 1974 award to the nearly-obscure Friedrich A. Hayek, for instance, generated a huge resurgence of interest in Hayek and Austrian economics.  Milton Friedman's 1976 award elevated him overnight from the profession's maverick to one of its elder statesmen and gave Monetarism a more respectable polish.  In more recent years, awards have brought entire fields of study into the research spotlight: bounded rationality was virtually unknown before Herbert Simon's 1978 award; so was Public Choice theory until James Buchanan's 1986 award.   New Institutionalism and New Economic History were still fringe movements before the awards to Coase, Becker, Fogel and North in 1991-1993. Of course, at times, the suggestions of the Nobel committee do not seem to have the desired impact.  The awards to Kuznets and Stone, for instance, were perhaps meant to encourage the vital but unglamorous tasks of data compilation and interpretation, but there was no perceptible rise in interest in their aftermath. 

A corollary to this is that the Bank of Sweden is occasionally criticized is for failing to choose the most popular candidates.  Some of the choices it has made have been openly criticized by professional economists.  There are a number of perennial candidates so universally liked and recommended, always leading straw polls year after year, whom nonetheless received no award.  

However, it is precisely because of the erratic and disproportionate "impact" the Bank of Sweden's choice has upon the profession and the shape of subsequent economics research that many  have called for an end to the Nobel Memorial Prize. One proposition is to replace it with a less lop-sided and less pretentious "lifetime award", like the Francis Walker Medal that used to be handed out by the American Economic Association.

The Bank of Sweden's Nobel Memorial prize for economics is announced around October 12th of every year, while the actual ceremony (shared with the original Nobel awards) is on December 8th.  Winners are requested to present a "Nobel Memorial Lectures", which is initially published in the volume Les Prix Nobel en xxxx, put out every year by the Nobel Foundation and then republished later in the academic journals of their laureate's choice.  In recent years, the American Economic Review has intermittently reprinted many of the Nobel Memorial Lectures.


 

 

NOBEL MEMORIAL PRIZES, 1969-1999.

1969 -

  • Ragnar Frisch, 1895-1973. (Norwegian, Oslo University) (Ph.D Oslo)
  • Jan Tinbergen, 1903-1994. (Dutch, Netherlands School of Economics) (Dr. Univ. Leiden)
  • "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"
  • Lecture: "From Utopian Theory to Practical Applications: The case of econometrics", Ragnar Frisch, 1981, AER
  • Lecture: "The Use of Models: Experience and prospects", by Jan Tinbergen, 1981, AER

1970 -

  • Paul A. Samuelson, 1915-  (American, M.I.T.) (Ph.D Harvard)
  • "for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"
  • Lecture:"Maximum Principles in Analytical Economics", by Paul A. Samuelson, 1972, AER.

1971 -

  • Simon Kuznets, 1901-1985. (American, (b. Russian), Harvard), (Ph.D Columbia)
  • "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"
  • Lecture: "Modern Economic Growth: Findings and reflections", by Simon Kuznets, 1973, AER.

1972 -

  • John Hicks, 1904-1989. (British, Oxford), (M.A. Oxford )
  • Kenneth J. Arrow, 1921- (American, Harvard), (Ph.D Columbia)
  • "for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"
  • Lecture: "The Mainspring of Economic Growth" by John Hicks, 1981, AER
  • Lecture: "General Economic Equilibrium: Purpose, analytic techniques, collective choice", by Kenneth J. Arrow, 1974, AER.

1973 -

  • Wassily Leontief, 1906-1999. (American (b. Russian), Harvard), (Ph.D Berlin)
  • "for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"
  • Lecture: "Structure of World Production: Outline of a simple input-output formulation", by Wassily Leontief, 1974, AER

1974 -

  • Gunnar Myrdal, 1898-1987. (Swedish, Stockholm), (Dr. juris,  Stockholm)
  • Friedrich A. von Hayek, 1899-1992.  (British (b. Austrian), Univ. Freiburg), (Dr. jur. Univ. Vienna)
  • "for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena"
  • Lecture:  "The Equality Issue in World Development", by Gunnar Myrdal, 1989, AER
  • Lecture: "The Pretence of Knowledge", Friedrich A. von Hayek, 1989, AER

1975 -

  • Leonid V. Kantorovich, 1912-1986. (Soviet Union, Inst. Nat. Econ. Management, Moscow), (Dr. Leningrad Univ.)
  • Tjalling C. Koopmans, 1910-1986. (American (b. Dutch), Yale), (Ph.D, Univ. Leiden)
  • "for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources".
  • Lecture: "Mathematics in Economics: Achievements, difficulties, perspectives" by Leonid V. Kantorovich, 1989, AER
  • Lecture: "Concepts of Optimality and their Uses", by Tjalling C. Koopmans, 1977, AER

1976 -

  • Milton Friedman, 1912-  (American, Chicago), (Ph.D Columbia)
  • "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"
  • Lecture: Inflation and Unemployment", by Milton Friedman, 1977, JPE.

1977  -

  • Bertil Ohlin, 1899-1979. (Swedish, Stockhom Sch. of Econ), (Dr. Univ. Stockholm)
  • James E. Meade, 1907-1995. (British, Cambridge), (M.A. Oxford)
  • "for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"
  • Nobel Lecture: "1933 and 1977 - Some Expansion Policy Problems in Cases of Unbalanced Domestic and International Economic Relations", by Bertil Ohlin, 1993, AER
  • Lecture: "The Meaning of "Internal Balance"", by James E. Meade, 1993, AER

1978 -

  • Herbert A. Simon, 1916- (American, Carnegie-Mellon), (Ph.D. Chicago)
  • "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"
  • Lecture: "Rational Decision Making in Business Organizations", by Herbert Simon, 1979, AER.

1979 -

  • Theodore W. Schultz, 1902- (American, Chicago), (Ph.D Wisconsin)
  • W. Arthur Lewis, 1915-1991. (British (b. St. Lucia), Princeton), (Ph.D. L.S.E.)
  • "for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"
  • Lecture: "The Economics of Being Poor", by T.W. W. Schultz 1980, JPE
  • Lecture: "The Slowing Down of the Engine of Growth", by W. Arthur Lewis, 1980, AER.

1980 -

  • Lawrence R. Klein, 1920-  (American, Pennsylvania), (Ph.D. M.I.T.)
  • "for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"

1981 -

  • James Tobin, 1918- (American, Yale), (Ph.D Harvard)
  • "for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices"
  • Lecture: "Money and Finance in the Macroeconomic Process", by James Tobin, 1982, JMCB

1982  -

  • George J. Stigler, 1911-1991. (American, Chicago), (Ph.D Chicago)
  • "for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"
  • Lecture: "The Process and Progress of Economics", by George J. Stigler, 1983, JPE.

1983 -

  • Gérard Debreu, 1921- (American (b. French), UC Berkeley), (D.Sc. Univ. Paris)
  • "for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"
  • Lecture: "Economic Theory in a Mathematical Mode", by Gérard Debreu, 1984, AER

1984 -

  • Richard Stone, 1913-1991. (British, Cambridge), (DSc. Cambridge)
  • "for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"
  • Lecture: "The Accounts of Society", by Richard Stone, 1986, Journal of Applied Econometrics

1985 -

  • Franco Modigliani, 1918- (American (b. Italian), M.I.T)., (Ph.D New School for Social Research)
  • for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"
  • Lecture: "Life Cycle, Individual Thrift and the Wealth of Nations" by Franco Modigliani, 1986, AER.

1986  -

  • James M. Buchanan, 1919- (American, George Mason Univ.), (Ph.D Chicago)
  • "for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"
  • Lecture: "The Constitution of Economic Policy", by James M. Buchanan, 1987, AER

1987  -

  • Robert M. Solow, 1924- (American, M.I.T.), (Ph.D. Harvard)
  • "for his contributions to the theory of economic growth"
  • Lecture: "Growth Theory and After", by Robert M. Solow, 1988, AER

1988 -

  • Maurice Allais, 1911- (French, Ecole Nat. Sup. Mines), (Ing. Dr. Univ. Paris)
  • "for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"
  • Lecture: "An Outline of My Main Contributions to Economic Science", by Maurice Allais, 1990, Theory and Decision

1989 -

  • Trygve Haavelmo, 1911- (Norwegian, Oslo), (Ph.D Oslo)
  • "for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"
  • Lecture: "Econometrics and the Welfare State", by Trygve Haavelmo, 1997, AER

1990 -

  • Harry M. Markowitz, 1927- (American, CUNY), (Ph.D Chicago)
  • Merton H. Miller, 1923-2000 (American, Chicago), (Ph.D Johns Hopkins)
  • William F. Sharpe, 1934- (American, Stanford), (Ph.D UCLA)
  • "for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"
  • Lecture: "Foundations of Portfolio Theory" by Harry M. Markowitz, 1991, J of Finance
  • Lecture: "Leverage" by Merton H. Miller, 1991, J of Finance
  • Lecture: "Capital Asset Prices With or Without Negative Holdings", William F. Sharpe, 1991, J of Finance

1991 -

  • Ronald H. Coase, 1910- (British, Chicago), (B.Com. L.S.E.)
  • "for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"
  • Lecture: "The Institutional Structure of Production", by Ronald Coase, 1992, AER

1992 -

  • Gary S. Becker, 1930- (American, Chicago), (Ph.D Chicago)
  • "for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour"
  • Lecture: "The Economic Way of Looking at Behavior", by Gary S. Becker, 1993, JPE

1993 -

  • Robert W. Fogel, 1926- (American, Chicago), (Ph.D Johns Hopkins)
  • Douglass C. North, 1920- (American, Washington Univ. St. Louis), (Ph.D UC Berkeley)
  • "for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"
  • Lecture: "Economic Growth, Population Theory and Physiology: The bearing of long-term processes on economic policy" by Robert W. Fogel, 1994, AER
  • Lecture: "Economic Performance Through Time" by Douglass C. North, 1994, AER

1994 -

  • John C. Harsanyi, 1920-2000 (American (b.Hungarian), UC Berkeley), (Ph.D Budapest)
  • John F. Nash, 1928- (American, Princeton), (Ph.D. Princeton)
  • Reinhard Selten, 1930- (German, Bonn), (Ph.D. Frankfurt)
  • "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

1995 -

  • Robert E. Lucas, 1937- (American, Chicago), (Ph.D Chicago)
  • "for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy"

1996 -

  • James A. Mirrlees, 1936- (British, Cambridge), (Ph.D. Cambridge)
  • William Vickrey, 1914-1996.(Canadian, Columbia), (Ph.D Columbia)
  • "for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"

1997 -

  • Robert C. Merton, 1944- (American, Harvard), (Ph.D. M.I.T.)
  • Myron S. Scholes, 1941- (American (b. Canadian), Stanford), (Ph.D. Minnesota)
  • "for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"

1998

  • Amartya K. Sen, 1933- (Indian, Cambridge), (Ph.D. Cambridge)
  • for his contributions to welfare economics.

1999 -

  • Robert Mundell, 1932- (Canadian, Columbia), (Ph.D M.I.T.)
  • for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas

2000

  • James J Heckman, 1944- (American, Chicago), (Ph.D. M.I.T.)
  • Daniel L. McFadden, 1937- (American (b. Canadian), UC Berkeley), (Ph.D. Chicago)
  • Heckmann: for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples,
  • McFadden: for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice

2001

  • George A. Akerlof, 1940- (American, UC Berkeley), (Ph.D. M.I.T.)
  • A. Michael Spence, 1943- (American, Stanford), (Ph.D. Harvard)
  • Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1943- (American, Columbia), (Ph.D. M.I.T.)
  • for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information 

2002

  • Daniel Kahneman, 1934- (Israeli, Princeton) (Ph.D. UC Berkeley)
  • Vernon L. Smith, 1927- (American, George Mason University) (Ph.D. Harvard)
  • Kahneman: for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty
  • Smith: for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms
  • Lecture: "Maps of Bounded Rationality" by Daniel Kahneman [nobel]
  • "Constructivist and Ecological Rationality in Economics" by Vernon L. Smith [nobel]

2003

  • Robert F. Engle, 1942 (American, NYU) (Ph.D. Cornell)
  • Clive W.J. Granger, 1934-2009 (British, UC San Diego) (Ph.D. Nottingham)
  • Engle "for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"
  • Granger "for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"
  • Lecture: "Risk and Volatility: Econometric Models and Financial Practice" by Robert F. Engle [nobel]
  • Lecture: "Time Series Analysis, Cointegration, and Applications" by Clive W.J. Granger [nobel]

2004

  • Finn E. Kydland, 1943- (Norwegian, Carnegie-Mellon & UC Santa Barbara) (Ph.D. Carnegie-Mellon)
  • Edward C. Prescott, 1940- (American, Arizona State) (Ph.D. Carnegie-Mellon)
  • "for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"
  • Lecture: "Quantitative Aggregate Theory" by Finn E. Kydland [nobel]
  • Lecture: "The Transformation of Macroeconomic Policy and Research" by Edward C. Prescott [nobel]

2005 -

  • Robert J. Aumann, 1930- (Israeli-American (b. German), Hebrew University of Jerusalem) (Ph.D. MIT)
  • Thomas C. Schelling, 1921- (American, University of Maryland College Park) (Ph.D. Harvard)
  • "for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"
  • Lecture: "War and Peace" by Robert J. Aumann [nobel]
  • Lecture: "An Astonishing Sixty Years: The Legacy of Hiroshima" [nobel]

2006 -

  • Edmund S. Phelps, 1933- (American, Columbia) (Ph.D. Yale)
  • "for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy"
  • Lecture: "Macroeconomics for a Modern Economy" [nobel]

2007 -

  • Leonid Hurwicz, 1917-2008 (American (b. Russia), Minnesota) (LL.M. Warsaw)
  • Eric S. Maskin, 1950- (American, IAS Princeton) (Ph.D. Harvard)
  • Roger B. Myerson, 1951- (American, Chicago) (Ph.D.Harvard)
  • "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"
  • Lecture: "But Who Will Guard the Guardians?" by Leonid Hurwicz [nobel]
  • Lecture: "Mechanism Design: How to Implement Social Goals" by Eric S. Maskin [nobel]
  • Lecture: "Perspectives on Mechanism Design in Economic Theory" by Roger B. Myerson [nobel]

2008 -

  • Paul Krugman, 1953- (American, Princeton) (Ph.D. MIT)
  • "for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"
  • Lecture: "The Increasing Returns Revolution in Trade and Geography" [nobel]

2009 -

  • Elinor Ostrom, 1933-2012 (American, Indiana Univ Bloomington) (Ph.D. UCLA)
  • Oliver E. Williamson, 1932- (American, UC Berkeley)  (Ph.D. Carnegie-Mellon)
  • Ostrom: "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"
  • Williamson:  "for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"
  • Lecture: "Beyond Markets and States: Polycentric Governance of Complex Economic Systems" by Elinor Ostrom [nobel]
  • Lecture: Transaction Cost Economics: The Natural Progression" by Oliver E. Williamson [nobel]

2010 -

  • Peter A. Diamond, 1940- (American, MIT) (Ph.D. MIT)
  • Dale T. Mortensen, 1939- (American, Northwestern) (Ph.D. Carnegie-Mellon)
  • Christopher A. Pissarides, 1948-(Cypriot, LSE) (Ph.D. LSE)
  • "for their analysis of markets with search frictions"
  • Lecture: "Unemployment, Vacancies, Wages" by Peter A. Diamond [nobel]
  • Lecture: "Markets with Search Frictions and the DMP Model" by Dale T. Mortensen [nobel]
  • Lecture: "Equilibrium in the Labour Market with Search Frictions" by Christopher A. Pissarides [nobel]

2011-

  • Thomas J. Sargent, 1943- (American, NYU) (Ph.D. Harvard)
  • Christopher A. Sims, 1942- (American, Princeton) (Ph.D. Harvard)
  • "for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"
  • Lecture: "United States Then, Europe Now" by Thomas J. Sargent [nobel]
  • Lecture: "Statistical Modeling of Monetary Policy and its Effects" by Christopher A. Sims [nobel]

2012-

  • Alvin E. Roth, 1951- (American, Harvard) (Ph.D. Stanford)
  • Lloyd S. Shapley, 1923- (American, UCLA) (Ph.D. Princeton)
  • "for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"
  • Lecture: "The Theory and Practice of Market design" by Alvin E. Roth [nobel]
  • Lecture: "Allocation Games - the Deferred Acceptance Algorithm" by Lloyd S. Shapley [nobel]

2013-

  • Eugene F. Fama, 1939- (American, Chicago), (Ph.D. Chicago)
  • Lars Peter Hansen, 1952- (American, Chicago) (Ph.D. Minnesota)
  • Robert J. Shiller, 1946- (American, Yale) (Ph.D. MIT)
  • "for their empirical analysis of asset prices"
  • Lecture: "Two Pillars of Asset Pricing" by Eugene Fama [nobel]
  • Lecture: "Uncertainty Outside and Inside Economic Models" by Lars Peter Hansen [nobel]
  • Lecture: "Speculative Asset Prices" by Robert J. Shiller [nobel]

2014-

  • Jean Tirole, 1953-   (French, Toulouse School of Economics) (Ph.D. MIT)
  • "for his analysis of market power and regulation"
  • Lecture: "Market Failures and Public Policy" by Jean Tirole [nobel]

2015-

  • Angus Deaton, 1945- (British, Princeton) (Ph.D. Cambridge)
  • "for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare"
  • Lecture: "Measuring and understanding behavior, welfare, and poverty" by Angus Deaton [nobel]
     

NOBEL STATISTICS

Nobels Awarded

  • [2001 data]
  • Total - 33
  • Awarded Individually - 20
  • Shared between two - 10
  • Shared between three - 3
  • Nobelists - 49 
  • [2015 data, inclusive]
  • Total - 47
  • Awarded Individually - 24
  • Shared between two - 17
  • Shared between three - 6
  • Nobelists - 76

Nationalities of Laureates

  • [2001 data]
  • American - 31
  • British - 7
  • Canadian - 2
  • Norwegian - 2
  • Swedish - 2
  • French - 1
  • Dutch - 1
  • Indian - 1
  • German - 1
  • Soviet Union - 1
  • Total = 49
  • [2015 data, inclusive]
  • American - 51.5
  • British - 9
  • Norwegian - 3
  • Canadian - 2
  • Swedish - 2
  • French - 2
  • Israel - 1.5
  • Dutch - 1
  • Indian - 1
  • German - 1
  • Soviet Union - 1
  • Cyprus - 1
  • Total = 76

(Note: foreign-born Kuznets, Koopmans, Debreu, Modigliani, Harsanyi, Scholes and Hurwicz received their awards as Americans; foreign-born Hayek and Lewis received theirs as British.  Foreign citizenship was retained for recipients Coase, Deaton & Granger (British) and Vickrey and Mundell (Canadian), Kydland (Norwegian), Sen (Indian), Pissarides (Cypriot).  foreign-born Aumann designated as both Israeli & American).

Affiliated Universities/Institutions (at time of award)

  • [2001 data]
  • Chicago - 9
  • UC Berkeley - 4
  • Cambridge - 4 
  • Harvard - 4
  • Columbia - 3
  • M.I.T. - 3
  • Stanford - 3
  • Oslo - 2
  • Princeton - 2
  • Yale - 2
  • Bonn - 1
  • Carnegie-Mellon - 1
  • City University of New York - 1
  • Ecole National Superieure de Mines, Paris - 1
  • Freiburg - 1
  • George Mason - 1
  • Institute for National Economic Management, Moscow- 1
  • Netherlands School of Econ. (Erasmus Univ.) - 1
  • Oxford - 1
  • Pennsylvania - 1
  • Stockholm Univ. - 1
  • Stockholm School of Econ. - 1
  • Washington Univ., St. Louis - 1
  • Total = 49
  • [2015 data inclusive]
  • Chicago - 12
  • Princeton -  6
  • UC Berkeley - 5
  • Harvard - 5
  • Cambridge - 4
  • Columbia - 4
  • M.I.T. - 4
  • Stanford -  3
  • Yale - 3
  • George Mason - 2
  • New York University - 2
  • Oslo -  2
  • Carnegie-Mellon - 1.5
  • Arizona State - 1
  • Bonn - 1
  • City University of New York - 1
  • Ecole National Superieure de Mines, Paris - 1
  • Freiburg - 1
  • Hebrew Univ of Jerusalem - 1
  • Indiana-Bloomington - 1
  • Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton - 1
  • Institute for National Economic Management, Moscow- 1
  • London School of Economics - 1
  • Maryland-College Park - 1
  • Minnesota - 1
  • Netherlands School of Econ. (Erasmus Univ.) - 1
  • Northwestern - 1
  • Oxford - 1
  • Pennsylvania - 1
  • Stockholm Univ. - 1
  • Stockholm School of Econ. - 1
  • Toulouse School of Econ - 1
  • UC Los Angeles - 1
  • UC San Diego - 1
  • Washington Univ., St. Louis - 1
  • UC Santa Barbara - 0.5
  • Total = 76

(Note: Kydland affiliated with both Carneigie-Mellon and UC Santa Barbara at time of award)

Universities where Laureates received their Highest Degree (Ph.Ds, etc.)

  • [2001 data]
  • Chicago - 7
  • M.I.T. - 5
  • Columbia - 4
  • Harvard - 4 
  • Cambridge - 3
  • Johns Hopkins - 2
  • Leiden - 2
  • L.S.E. - 2
  • Oxford - 2
  • Oslo - 2
  • Paris - 2
  • Princeton - 2
  • Stockholm - 2
  • Berkeley - 1
  • Berlin - 1
  • Budapest - 1
  • Frankfurt - 1
  • Leningrad - 1
  • Minnesota - 1
  • New School - 1
  • UCLA - 1
  • Vienna - 1
  • Wisconsin - 1
  • Total = 49
  • [2015 data, inclusive]
  • MIT - 11
  • Harvard -  10
  • Chicago -  8
  • Columbia -  4
  • Cambridge - 4
  • Carnegie-Mellon - 4
  • L.S.E. - 3
  • Johns Hopkins -  2
  • Leiden -  2
  • Minnesota - 2
  • Oxford - 2
  • Oslo -  2
  • Paris -  2
  • Princeton -  2
  • Stockholm -  2
  • Berkeley - 2
  • UCLA - 2
  • Berlin - 1
  • Budapest - 1
  • Cornell - 1
  • Frankfurt - 1
  • Leningrad - 1
  • New School - 1
  • Nottingham - 1
  • Stanford - 1
  • Vienna - 1
  • Warsaw - 1
  • Wisconsin - 1
  • Yale - 1
  • Total = 76
 

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