"See there!  I told you!  Not an ounce of originality!


Oh! Am I still stuck in this jail?
This God-damned dreary hole in the wall
Where even the lovely light of heaven
Breaks wanly through the painted panes!
Cooped up among these heaps of books
Gnawed by worms, coated with dust,
Round which to the top of the Gothic vault
A smoke-stained paper forms a crust...
The junk of centuries, dense and mat -
Your world, man! World? They call it that!
(J.W. GoetheFaust, Part One, 1808: 398-409)



All of the writing in the individual economists profiles, Schools of Thought, and under "Essays and Surveys" were composed by myself (Gonçalo Fonseca) between 1997 and now.  As this content is always being revised and changing, I do not encourage citation or reference to this material.  But if you must, then:

Fonseca,  Gonçalo (n.d.) "Article Title", The History of Economic Thought Website. Retrieved month, day, year from

(n.d.) means "no date".  You can also use the date range "(1997-2016)" if you prefer. 

We have also placed a small collection of original economics texts on this website.  Proper source and citations for these articles can be found either at the beginning of the documents are on the list of HET e-texts

Most other electronic texts you may come across on these pages are merely linked by us and are off this website.  For the major sources of original economics texts, see our list of online archives in the history of economic thought.  

Note: the "frames" design of this website hides the original web-address and so documents which are off this website may appear under our URL.  Open the document in a new window (right-click on the mouse) to get the correct web-address of the document you are interested in.



The following (non-electronic) texts have been consulted in constructing this website and are recommended to our visitors as further reading. This is merely a representative and not an exhaustive list of the resources that were used. As the written content of the web pages on this site is of our own composition, this brief list does not imply any more specific acknowledgement. See also our list of web links on HET for general online resources.

Note that not all of the references listed here are history of economic thought texts in the proper sense of the term. Several are merely economic treatises which nonetheless employ substantial and useful reviews of past and present economic doctrines.  If you wish to add a particularly informative book to this list, please e-mail us.

  • E. Albee, 1902, A History of English Utilitarianism.  Bristol: Thoemmes.
  • M. Alter, 1990, Carl Menger and the Origins of Austrian Economics.  Boulder: Westview.
  • A. Anakin, 1975, A Science in its Youth: Pre-Marxian political economy, Moscow: Progress.
  • J. Appleby, 1978, , Economic Thought and Ideology in Seventeenth Century England Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • P. Arestis and M. Sawyer, editors, 1992, A Biographical Dictionary of Dissenting Economists, Aldershot, Edward Elgar.
  • K.J. Arrow and M.D. Intriligator, editors, 1981-3, Handbook of Mathematical Economics, Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • K.J. Arrow et al., 1991, Cowles Fiftieth Anniversary, New Haven: Cowles Foundation.
  • A. Asimakopulos, 1991, Keynes's General Theory and Accumulation, Cambridge, UK:Cambridge University Press.
  • R. Backhouse, 1985, A History of Modern Economic Analysis, Oxford: Blackwell.
  • R. Backhouse, 1988, Economists and the Economy: The Evolution of Economic Ideas, 1600 to the Present Day, New Brunswick: Transaction.
  • W.J. Barber, 1988, editor, Breaking the Academic Mould: Economists and American higher learning in the Nineteenth Century, Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press.
  • M. Beaud and G. Dostaler, 1993, Economic thought Since Keynes: A History and dictionary of major economists.  London: Routledge.
  • D. Bell, 1967, History of Economic Thought, New York: Ronald.
  • R.D.C. Black, A.W. Coats and C.D.W. Goodwin, 1972, editors, The Marginal Revolution in Economics: Interpretations and Evaluation: Papers presented at a conference held at the Villa Sebelloni, Bellagio, Italy, August 23-28, 1971.  Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • R.D.C. Black, editor, 1977-81, Papers and Correspondence of William Stanley Jevons. 7 vols., London: Macmillan.
  • M. Blaug, 1962, Economic Theory in Retrospect, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • M. Blaug, 1980, The Methodology of Economics: Or how economists explain.  1992 edition, Cambridge UK: Cambidge University Press.
  • M. Blaug and P. Sturges, 1983, Who's Who in Economics, 1700-1980, Cambridge, Mass: M.I.T. Press.
  • M. Blaug, 1985, Great Economists Since Keynes, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • M. Blaug, 1986, Great Economists Before Keynes, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • M. Bleaney, 1976, Underconsumption Theories: History and critical analysis, New York: International.
  • J. Bonner, 1995, Economic Efficiency and Social Justice: The development of utilitarian ideas in economics from Bentham to Edgeworth.  Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar.
  • H. Brems, 1986, Pioneering Economic Theory, 1630-1980, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • P. Bridel, 1997, Money and General Equilibrium Theory: from Walras to Pareto, 1870-1923, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
  • J.M. Buchanan, 1960, Fiscal Theory and Political Economy: Selected essays.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • B.J. Caldwell, editor, Carl Menger and His Legacy in Economics, Annual Supplement to Volume 22, History of Political Economy. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • E. Cannan, 1893, A History of the Theories of Production and Distribution in English Political Economy from 1776 to 1848, New York: Augustus M. Kelley.
  • J.W. Conard, 1959,  An Introduction to the Theory of Interest. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press,
  • L.A. Coser, 1984, Refugee Scholars in America: Their impact and their experiences. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • P. Deane, 1978, The Evolution of Economic Ideas, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • N. De Marchi and M.S. Morgan, 1994, Higgling: Transactors and Their Markets in the History of Economics, Annual supplement to volume 26 History of Political Economy.  Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • M.H. Dobb, 1973, Theories of Value and Distribution since Adam Smith: Ideology and economic theory, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • M. Dore, S. Chakravarty and R. Goodwin, editors, 1989, John von Neumann and Modern Economics, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • J. Dorfman, 1934, Thorstein Veblen and His America.  1972 edition, New York: A.M. Kelley.
  • R.V. Eagly, 1984, The Structure of Classical Economic Theory, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • J.L. Eatwell, M. Milgate and P.K.Newman, editors, 1985, The New Palgrave: A dictionary of economics, New York: Macmillan.
  • E.W. Eckard, 1940, Economics of W.S. Jevons.  Washington, DC: American Council on Public Affairs.
  • R.B. Ekelund and R.F. Hébert, 1999, Secret Origins of Modern Microeconomics: Dupuit and the Engineers.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • D.E.C. Eversley, 1959, Social Theories of Fertility and the Malthusian Debate.  Oxford: Clarendon.
  • M. Faber, 1979, Introduction to Modern Austrian Capital Theory.  Berlin: Springer.
  • W. Fellner, 1949, Competition Among the Few: Oligopoly and similar market structures.  1960 reprint, New York: A.M. Kelley.
  • P. Gay, 1969, The Enlightenment: An interpretation - the Science of Freedom.  1977 edition, New York: Norton.
  • C. Gide and C.Rist, 1909, A History of Economic Doctrines, London: G.G. Harrap.
  • P. Groenewegen, 1995, A Soaring Eagle: Alfred Marshall 1842-1924. Aldershot: Elgar.
  • G. Haberler, 1937, Prosperity and Depression: A theoretical analysis of cyclical movements, New York: United Nations.
  • A.H. Hansen, 1951, Business Cycles and National Income, New York: Norton.
  • G.C. Harcourt, 1972, Some Cambridge Controversies in the Theory of Capital, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • A. Hald, 1998, A History of Mathematical Statistics: From 1750 to 1930.  New York: Wiley.
  • F.A. Hayek, 1991, The Trend of Economic Thinking, London: Routledge.
  • E.F. Heckscher, 1931, Mercantilism, 1935 translation, London: Allen & Unwin.
  • R.L. Heilbroner, 1953, The Worldly Philosophers, New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • R.L. Heilbroner, 1988, Behind the Veil of Economics: Essays in worldly philosophy, New York: Norton.
  • Eduard Heimann, 1945, History of Economic Doctrines: An introduction to economic theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • K. Hennings and W.J. Samuels, 1990, editors, Neoclassical Economic Theory, 1870 to 1930, Boston: Kluwer.
  • G.M. Hodgson, 1993, Economics and Evolution: Bringing life back into economics, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • R.S. Howey, 1960, The Rise of the Marginal Utility School, 1870-1889.  Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.
  • E.K. Hunt, 1979, History of Economic Thought. Wadsworth.
  • T.W. Hutchinson, 1953, A Review of Economic Doctrines, Oxford: Clarendon.
  • T.W. Hutchinson, 1994, The Uses and Abuses of Economics: Contentious essays on history and method, London: Routledge.
  • B.Ingrao and G. Israel, 1987, The Invisible Hand: Economic equilibrium in the history of science, Cambridge, Mass: M.I.T. Press.
  • W. Jaffé, 1983, William Jaffé's Essays on Walras (D. Walker, ed.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • L. Jonung, 1991, editor, The Stockholm School of Economics Revisited, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • E. Kauder, 1965, A History of Marginal Utility Theory.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • J.M. Keynes, 1933, Essays in Biography, London: Macmillan.
  • F.H. Knight, 1956, On the History and Method of Economics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • J.M. Koot, 1987, English Historical Economics, 1870- 1926, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • C.D. Krohn, 1987, Intellectuals in Exile: Refugee scholars and the New School for Social Research.  Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
  • R.E. Kuenne, 1963, The Theory of General Economic Equilibrium, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • K. Kyun, 1988, Equilibrium Business Cycle Theory in Historical Perspective, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • D. Laidler, 1991, The Golden Age of the Quantity Theory, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • H. Landreth and D. Colander, History of Economic Theory, Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
  • B.J. Loasby, 1989, The Mind and Method of the Economist: A critical appraisal of major economists in the 20th century, Aldershot, UK: Elgar.
  • F.A. Lutz, 1956, The Theory of Interest, Chicago: Aldine.
  • F. Machlup, 1960, Essays in Economic Semantics.  1975 edition, New York: New York University Press.
  • J. Maloney, 1991, The Professionalization of Economics: Alfred Marshall and the dominance of orthodoxy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
  • A.W. Marget, 1942, Theory of Prices, 2 vols., New York: Prentice Hall.
  • K. Marx, 1910, Theories of Surplus Value, 3 vols., London: Lawrence & Wishart.
  • R. Meek, 1956, Studies in the Labor Theory of Value, New York: Monthly Review Press.
  • R. Meek, 1963, Economics of Physiocracy: Essays and translations, New York: Augustus M. Kelley.
  • R. Meek, 1973, Precursors of Adam Smith, London: Dent.
  • P. Mirowski, 1989, More Heat than Light: Economics as social physics, physics as nature's economics.  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • P. Mirowski, 1994, editor, Edgeworth on Chance, Economic Hazard and Statistics.  Lanham, Maryland: Rowan and Littlefied.
  • P. Mirowski, 2002, Machine Dreams: Economics becomes a cyborg science.
  • W.C. Mitchell, 1967, Types of Economic Theory, 2 vols., New York: Augustus M. Kelley.
  • M.S. Morgan, 1990, The History of Econometric Ideas, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • A.E. Murphy, 1983, editor, Economists and the Irish Economy.  Dublin: Irish Academic Press.
  • H. Myint 
  • G. Myrdal, 1929, The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • J. Narveson, 1967, Morality and Utility.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.
  • T. Negishi, 1989, History of Economic Thought, Amstedam: North-Holland.
  • T. Negishi, 1994, The History of Economics: Collected Essays, Vol. II, Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar.
  • J. Niehans, 1990, A History of Economic Theory: Classic contributions, 1720-1890, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • D. Patinkin, 1972, Essays On and In the Chicago Tradition. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • D. Patinkin, 1976, Keynes's Monetary Thought: A study of its development. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • D. Patinkin, 1982, Anticipations of the General Theory? And other essays on Keynes, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • M. Perelman, 1984, Classical Political Economy.
  • T.M. Porter, 1986, The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820-1900.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • K. Pribram, 1983, A History of Economic Reasoning, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • A. Quinton, 1973, Utilitarian Ethics. 1988 edition, LaSalle, Ill: Open Court.
  • M.W. Reder, 1999, Economics: The culture of a controversial science.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • I. Rima, 1967, Development of Economic Analysis, Homewood, Ill., R. D. Irwin.
  • E. Roll, 1939, History of Economic Thought, Englewodd Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
  • W.W. Rostow, 1990, Theorists of Economic Growth: from David Hume to the present.
  • P.M. Rutkoff and W.B. Scott, 1986, New School: A history of the New School for Social Research. New York: Free Press.
  • W.J. Samuels and Biddle, editors, Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology.
  • W.J. Samuels, 1988, Institutional Economics, 2 vols, Aldershot: Edward Elgar.
  • W.J. Samuels, 1992, Essays in the History of Heterodox Political Economy, New York: New York University Press
  • W.J. Samuels, 1992, Essays in the History of Mainstream. Political Economy, New York: New York University Press.
  • W.J. Samuels, 1993, editor The Chicago School of Political Economy, New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction.
  • W.J. Samuels, 1996, editor, American Economists of the Late Twentieth Century, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
  • B. Sandelin, editor, 1991, A History of Swedish Economic Thought, London: Routledge.
  • G.L.S. Shackle, 1967, The Years of High Theory: Invention and tradition in economic thought, 1926-1939.
  • J.A. Schumpeter, 1912, Economic Doctrine and Method. 1954 translation, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • J.A.Schumpeter, 1951, Ten Great Economists from Marx to Keynes, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • J.A. Schumpeter, 1954, History of Economic Analysis, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • E. Screpanti and Zamagni
  • B.S. Seligman, 1962, Main Currents in Modern Economics, 3 volumes, Chicago: Quadrangle.
  • M. Shubik, 1959, Strategy and Market Structure: Competition, oligopoly and the theory of games.  New York: Wiley.
  • R. Skidelsky, 1983, John Maynard Keynes: Vol. I - Hopes Betrayed, 1883-1920.  London: Macmillan.
  • R. Skidelsky, 1992, John Maynard Keynes: Vo. II - The Economist as Saviour, 1920-1937.  London: Macmillan.
  • T. Sowell, 1972, Say's Law: An historical analysis, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • T. Sowell, 1974, Classical Economics Reconsidered.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • H.W. Spiegel, 1971, The Growth of Economic Thought, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • G.J.Stigler, 1941, Production and Distribution Theories: The formative period, New York: Macmillan.
  • G.J.Stigler, 1965, Essays in the History of Economics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • S.M. Stigler, 1986, The History of Statistics: The measurement of uncertainty before 1900.  Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
  • P.M. Sweezy, 1942, The Theory of Capitalist Development: Principles of Marxian political economy, New York: Monthly Review Press.
  • J. Viner, 1937, Studies in the Theory of International Trade, New York: Harper.
  • J. Viner, 1991, Essays on the Intellectual History of Economics, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • J.J. Vromen, 1995, Economic Evolution: an inquiry into the foundations of new institutional economics, London: Routledge.
  • D.A.Walker, 1996, Walras's Market Models, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • V. Walsh and H. Gram, 1980, Classical and Neoclassical Theories of General Equilibrium: Historical origins and mathematical structure, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • E.R. Weintraub, 1979, Microfoundations: The compatibility of microeconomics and macroeconomics.  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • E.R. Weintraub, 1985, General Equilibrium Analysis: Studies in appraisal, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • E.R. Weintraub, 1991, Stabilizing Dynamics: Constructing economic knowledge.  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • J.K. Whitaker, editor, 1990, Centenary Essays on Alfred Marshall. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Various issues of the following journals have also been consulted:

  • History of Political Economy published by the Duke University Press.
  • Journal of the History of Economic Thought, published by the History of Economics Society (USA)
  • European Journal of the History of Economic Thought.


We wish to acknowledge some of the major sources of the images throughout this website.  Unfortunately, we started building this site and collecting the images before we realized that perhaps we should have kept track of the sources. We are trying to rectify the situation and have tried to reconstruct the sources in the following list, but it is only tentative at present.  Note that the following list does not imply that we have received permission to use the images.  Some requests for permission were graciously given, but others are still pending, so please be very careful with them.   If you would wish to use any of the images, please refer to the sources, not us.

Many other images  were gathered from throughout the web.  If these are not public domain, please notify us immediately and we will take them down at once.

Images on Main Pages

Most of the images gracing the main pages of this website were drawn by a certain Mr. Herrick and have been scanned from J.S. Gibbons (1859) The Banks of New York, Their Dealers, The Clearing House and the Panic of 1857. New York: Appleton & Co.

Scanned Images

The following images have were scanned from the following sources

American Economic Review: Portraits and/or signatures from American Economic Review (various years) of the following economists : Arrow, Baumol, Becker, Boulding, Burns, J.M. Clark, Commons, Davenport, Debreu, Domar, Douglas, Ely, Fetter, Fisher?, Friedman, Galbraith,  Georgescu-Roegen, Haberler, Hansen, Klein, Knight, Koopmans,   Kuznets, Leontief, Lewis, Machlup,  Marschak, Metzler?, Mitchell, Modigliani, Morgenstern, Rosenstein-Rodan?, Radner, Samuelson,  Schelling, Schumpeter, Scitovsky?, Seligman, Simon, Solow, Stigler, Taussig, Tobin, Viner, Walker, Young. 

Also from the American Economic Review:

1953 - from an article by Robert Dorfman, "Mathematical or Linear Programming: A non-mathematical introduction", an illustration of activity analysis isoquants (Cowles Commission)
1956 - from an article by Sidney Weintraub, "A Macroeconomic Approach to the Theory of Wages", illustration of D/Z goods market equilibrium (Post Keynesians)
1957 - from an article by Francis M. Bator, "The Simple Analytics of Welfare Maximization",an illustration of the Edgeworth-Bowley box and an illustration of production optimality conditions. (Anglo-American Mathematical Marginalists, Lausanne School)
1971 - from an article by R.J. Barro and H.I. Grossman, "A General Disequilibrium Model of Income and Employment", illustration of rationed market (Walrasian-Keynesian)
1984 - from an article by Gerard Debreu, "Economic Theory in a Mathematical Mode", an illustration of the Gale-Nikaido Lemma (Neo-Walrasians)

Econometrica: Portraits and/or signatures from Econometrica (various years) of the following economists:  Cournot, Divisia, F.M. Fisher?, Frisch, Hotelling, Hurwicz, Malinvaud, Moore?,  Pareto, Radner, Roos, Roy, Scarf, Schultz?, Schumpeter?, Sonnenschein, von Thunen, Uzawa, Wald, Wold, Wicksell.

Also from Econometrica:

1934 - a note by Irving Fisher and fascimile of tribute by the Econometric Society to University of Lausanne (Walras)
1935 - from an article by Michal Kalecki, "A Macrodynamic Theory of Business Cycles", an illustration of a business cycle indicating peaks and troughs.(Business Cycle Theory)
1937- from an article by J.R. Hicks, "Mr. Keynes and the Classics: A suggested interpretation", an illustration of the first IS-LM diagram (Neo-Keynesian Synthesis)
1981? - from an article whose reference we have unfortunately lost at present (but are busy tracing and will cite appropriately!), a diagram of a Wald Test. (Empirics and Econometrics)
1991 - from an article by Ariel Rubinstein, a diagram of a game tree (Game Theory)

Quarterly Journal of Economics:

1966 - from an article by Luigi L. Pasinetti, "Changes in the Rate of Profit and Switches of Technique", illustration of wage-profit curves with five techniques (Capital Theory, Neo-Ricardians)

Journal of Political Economy: Portrait of Miguel Sidrauski. Also:

1939 - from an article by Paul Sweezy "Demand Under Conditions of Oligopoly", diagram of kinked demand curve under oligopoly (Imperfect Competition)

Mark Blaug's "Great Economists Before Keynes: An Introduction to the Lives and Works of One Hundred Great Economists of the Past" (1986, Cambridge University Press) and "Great Economists Since Keynes: An Introduction to the Lives and Works of One Hundred Modern Economists" (1985, Cambridge University Press): portraits of the following economists: Adelman, Aftalion, Alchian, Arrow, Bain, Barone, Bergson,  Bortkiewicz, Bowley, Burns, Cassel, Chamberlin, Chenery, J.M. Clark, Clower, Commons, Demsetz, Dobb, Dorfman, Downs, Ely, Fisher, Gerschenkron,  Haberler, Hahn, Hansen, Harrod, Hawtrey, Hicks, Hilferding, Hirschmann, Jevons, H.G. Johnson, Kaldor, J. Neville Keynes, Kuznets, Leijonhufvud,  Lerner, Lipsey, Little, Lucas, Machlup, McCulloch,  Mincer, Morishima,  Musgrave, Okun, Pasinetti,  Patinkin, Phelps, Pigou, Posner, Robbins, Robertson, Rostow, Say, Scitovsky, Senior, Shackle, Spiethoff,  Stiglitz, Thornton, Torrens, Triffin, Weber, Weintraub, Wicksell, Wieser. (some of the scans from Dr. Hak Choi sites)

Other Sources:  portraits of the following economists were taken from the following sources:

  • Carver, Clark (young), Ely (young),  Fetter, Fisher (young), George, Seligman (young), Sumner, Taussig from A.F. Weber (1899) "American Economists of To-Day", New England Magazine,Vol. 21 (3).
  • Akerman - from Hegeland, editor, Money, Growth and Methodology: essays in honor of Johan Akerman.  1961, Lund.
  • Aumann - from S. Hart and A. Neyman, editors, 1995, Game and Economic Theory: Selected Contributions in Honor of Robert J. Aumann.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,
  • Allais, Brunner, A. Robinson, Tsuru - from M. Szenberg's Eminent Economists: Their life philosophies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Baumol -- from Bailey and Nadiri, 1976, editors, Selected Economic Writings of William J. Baumol.  New York: New York University Press.
  • Beveridge -- from Beveridge, 1955, Power and Influence. New York: Beechhurst.
  • Cannan (f. own book?),
  • De Quincey - from Thomas De Quincey's Writings, 1851.
  • Dreze - from Barnett et al., editors, 1991, Equilibrium Theory and Applications.  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Foster & Catchings' Circuit of Money - from Foster and Catchings, 1923, Money.   New York: Houghton-Mifflin.
  • B. Graham - from B. Graham, 1937, Storage and Stability: A modern ever-normal granary, New York: McGraw-Hill
  • Friedman-Stigler and Coase-Knight-Stigler-Demsetz pictures -- from G.J. Stigler, 1988, Memoirs of an Unregulated Economist.  New York: Basic Books.
  • Haberler -- from G. Haberler, 1974, Economic Growth and Stability. Los Angeles: Nash.
  • Harcourt -- from G.C. Harcourt, 1986, Controversies in Political Economy.  New York: New York University Press.
  • Hicks -- from J. Hicks, 1974, The Crisis in Keynesian Theory.  New York: Basic Books.
  • Johnson - from A.S. Johsnon, 1954, Essays in Social Science, New York.
  • Kaldor -- from Targetti and Thirwall, 1989, editors, The Essential Kaldor.  New York: Holmes & Meier.
  • Lange, Simons, Viner and five photos of the Cowles Commission from D. Patinkin's Essays On and In the Chicago Tradition, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • Lowe - from H. Hagemann and H.D. Kurz, editors, 1984, Beschäftigung, Verteilung und Konjuktur. Universit Bremen.
  • Mandeville (f. frontpiece of the Fable of the Bees, Liberty Classics)
  • Minsky - from S. Fazzari and D.B. Papadimitriou, 1992, editors, Financial Conditions and Macroeconomic Performance. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe
  • Nurkse - from Haberler and Stern, editors, 1961, Equilibrium and growth in the world economy: Economic essays.   Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
  • Quesnay -- from Kuczynski and Meek, 1972, editors, Quesnay's Tableau Economique.  New York: A.M. Kelley.
  • Rapoport - from A. Rapoport, 1960, Fights, Games and Debates. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Schultz - from O. Lange, F. McKintyre and T.O. Yntema, editors, 1942 Studies in Mathematical Economics and Econometrics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
  • Schumpeter - from R.V. Clemence, editor, 1951, Essays of J.A. Schumpeter.  Cambridge, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
  • J. Robinson (young) from G.R. Feiwel, 1989, editor, Economics of Imperfect Competition and Employment.  New York: New York University Press.
  • J. Robinson (old) from G.R. Feiwel, 1989, editor, Joan Robinson and Modern Economic Theory.  New York: New York University Press.
  • Sraffa-Keynes-Robertson portrait -- from Moggridge, editor, 1979,  Collected Writing of John Maynard Keynes, Vol. XXIX.  New York: Macmillan.
  • Walras - from W. Jaffe, editor, 1965, Correspondence of Leon Walras and Related Papers, Vol. I.  Amsterdam: North-Holland

Borrowed Images

Dr. Coll's Economia de Mercado (Malaga): Amin, Kautsky, Kirzner,

The Cowles Foundation : Cowles, Geanakoplos, Koopmans, Marschak, Roos, Scarf, Shubik, Yntema, the Mandarins

Gallica (Bibliothèque Nationale de France): Walrasian General Equilibrium Theory

Rod Hay's McMaster Archive: Bentham,  Bohm-Bawerk, Cantillon, J.B. Clark, Hobbes, Law, Petty, Quesnay, Wicksteed.

MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive: Bertrand, Bernoulli, Berkeley, Condorcet, Mandelbrot, Karl Menger, Nash, Ramsey, Abraham Robinson, Slutsky.

Marx-Engels Archive: Engels, Marx, Luxemburg, Growth Theory.

New Deal Network: Keynesian Revolution, Neoclassical Macroeconomics

Nobel Website: Portraits of the following economists: Allais, Becker, Buchanan, Coase, Debreu, Fogel, Friedman, Haavelmo, Harsanyi, Kantorovich, Klein,  W.A. Lewis, Markowitz, Meade, Merton, Miller, Modigliani,  Myrdal,   North, Ohlin, Samuelson, Scholes, T.W. Schultz,  Selten, Sharpe, Simon, Solow, Stigler,  Stone, Tinbergen, Vickrey.

The Peel Web: the British Anti-Classicals, Manchester School

Dr. Eckhard Schultz's Hall of Economists: Eucken, Kalecki, Keynes, Kondratieff, Leontief, List, Malthus, Marshall, Menger, Ricardo, Ropke, Schmoller, Schumpeter, Sombart, Stackelberg. (Coase,  Friedman, Hayek, Samuelson, Tobin)

Spartacus Educational Website: Bentham, Henry and Millicent, Fawcett, Martineau, J.Mill,  Owen, Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb,  Harriet Taylor, Mill and Taylor,   the Classical Ricardian System, the Classical Ricardians, Social Philosophers.

Paulette Taieb and the Centre d'Histoire de la Pensée Economique:  Boisguilbert.

The Siege and Commune of Paris, 1870-71 (Northwestern University): the Marginalist Revolution

Individual Websites: Portraits of economists and other images are borrowed from the following sites (links are given on respective pages): Anderson (Berkeley), Barro (Hoover Institute), Baumol (Levy Institute),  Bewley (Yale), Blanchard (Harvard), Boulding (CSF, Colorado), Brown (Yale), Condillac (Univ. of Idaho), Paul Davidson (Tennessee), Diamond (M.I.T.), Duffie (Stanford), Eatwell (House of Lords),  Foley (Columbia), Douglas Gale (NYU), Goodwin (Siena),  Grodal (Copenhagen), Heilbroner (New School), Hildenbrand (Bonn), Hume (Hume Archive), Jorgensen (Harvard), Kreps (Stanford),  McKenzie (Rochester), Meltzer (Carnegie-Mellon), Thomas Moore (Texas), Mundell (Columbia), Nell (New School), Pantaleoni (ITCG), Peleg (Elsevier), Sargent (Hoover Institute), Schwartz (Elsevier),  Sen (Indian-American Conference),  Shell (Cornell), Smale (Berkeley), Starr (UC San Diego), Stokey (Chicago), Vind (Copenhagen), Williamson (Berkeley), Wilson (Stanford), American Economic Association (A.E.A. Site), Bullionist Controversy (Bank of England), Cambridge Neoclassicals and Cambridge Keynesians (Cambridge University website), Chicago School (University of Chicago website), Fabian Society (Beatrice Webb Homepage), German Historical School (F. Velde's Heraldica website), Harvard (Harvard University website), Kiel School (Kiel Institute),  L.S.E. (L.S.E. site), Economic Development (Lusaka Lowdown), Lessius, Molina, and de Lugo (Jesuit family album), Grotius (Societas Luridicas Grotius),  Marginalist Revolution (Northwestern), Business Cycles (Irish Famine Project), Ayres (School of Cooperative Individualism),

Still trying to trace sources for the following images:   Galbraith, George, Godwin, Hutcheson, Locke, J.S. Mill, Mises, von Neumann, Newcomb, Proudhon, Joan Robinson, Rousseau, Adam Smith, Spencer, Turgot, Veblen, American Institutionalists,  Enlightenment economists, Marxian School,  Mercantilists, Monetarism,  New Institutionalist, Physiocrats, Austrian, Scottish Enlightenment, Vienna Colloquium, Monetary Theory, Mathematical Appendix, Marcet

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