|Oh! Am I still stuck in this jail?
This God-damned dreary hole in the wall
Where even the lovely light of heaven
Breaks wanly through the painted panes!
Cooped up among these heaps of books
Gnawed by worms, coated with dust,
Round which to the top of the Gothic vault
A smoke-stained paper forms a crust...
The junk of centuries, dense and mat -
Your world, man! World? They call it that!
|(J.W. Goethe, Faust, Part
One, 1808: 398-409)
NOTE ON ELECTRONIC TEXTS
All of the writing in the individual economists
profiles, Schools of Thought, and under "Essays and
Surveys" were composed by myself (Gonçalo Fonseca)
between 1997 and now. As this content is always being revised and
changing, I do not encourage citation or reference to this material.
But if you must, then:
Fonseca, Gonçalo (n.d.) "Article Title", The History of Economic
Thought Website. Retrieved month, day, year from http://www.hetwebsite.net/het/xxx
(n.d.) means "no date". You can also use the date range "(1997-2016)"
if you prefer.
We have also placed a small
collection of original economics texts on this website. Proper
source and citations for these articles can be found either at the beginning of
the documents are on the list of HET e-texts.
Most other electronic texts
you may come across on these pages are merely linked by us and are off this website.
For the major sources of original economics texts, see our list
of online archives in the history of economic thought.
"frames" design of this website hides the original web-address and so
documents which are off this website may appear under our URL. Open the
document in a new window (right-click on the mouse) to get the correct
web-address of the document you are interested in.
FURTHER SOURCE MATERIAL
The following (non-electronic) texts have been consulted in constructing
this website and are recommended to our visitors as further reading. This is merely a representative
and not an exhaustive list of the resources that were used. As the written
content of the web pages on this site is of our own composition, this brief list does not
imply any more specific acknowledgement. See also our list of web links
on HET for general online resources.
Note that not all of the references listed here are history of economic
thought texts in the proper sense of the term. Several are merely economic treatises
which nonetheless employ substantial and useful reviews of past and present economic
doctrines. If you wish to add a particularly informative book to this list, please
- E. Albee, 1902, A History of English Utilitarianism. Bristol:
- M. Alter, 1990, Carl Menger and the Origins of Austrian Economics.
- A. Anakin, 1975, A Science in its Youth: Pre-Marxian political economy, Moscow:
- J. Appleby, 1978, , Economic Thought and Ideology in Seventeenth Century England
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- P. Arestis and M. Sawyer, editors, 1992, A Biographical Dictionary of Dissenting
Economists, Aldershot, Edward Elgar.
- K.J. Arrow and M.D. Intriligator, editors, 1981-3, Handbook of Mathematical Economics,
- K.J. Arrow et al., 1991, Cowles Fiftieth Anniversary, New Haven: Cowles
- A. Asimakopulos, 1991, Keynes's General Theory and Accumulation, Cambridge,
UK:Cambridge University Press.
- R. Backhouse, 1985, A History of Modern Economic Analysis, Oxford: Blackwell.
- R. Backhouse, 1988, Economists and the Economy: The Evolution of Economic Ideas, 1600
to the Present Day, New Brunswick: Transaction.
- W.J. Barber, 1988, editor, Breaking the Academic Mould: Economists and American
higher learning in the Nineteenth Century, Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University
- M. Beaud and G. Dostaler, 1993, Economic thought Since Keynes: A History and
dictionary of major economists. London: Routledge.
- D. Bell, 1967, History of Economic Thought, New York: Ronald.
- R.D.C. Black, A.W. Coats and C.D.W. Goodwin, 1972, editors, The
Marginal Revolution in Economics: Interpretations and Evaluation: Papers
presented at a conference held at the Villa Sebelloni, Bellagio, Italy,
August 23-28, 1971. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
- R.D.C. Black, editor, 1977-81, Papers and Correspondence of William
Stanley Jevons. 7 vols., London: Macmillan.
- M. Blaug, 1962, Economic Theory in Retrospect, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
- M. Blaug, 1980, The Methodology of Economics: Or how economists explain.
1992 edition, Cambridge UK: Cambidge University Press.
- M. Blaug and P. Sturges, 1983, Who's Who in Economics, 1700-1980, Cambridge,
Mass: M.I.T. Press.
- M. Blaug, 1985, Great Economists Since Keynes, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
- M. Blaug, 1986, Great Economists Before Keynes, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
- M. Bleaney, 1976, Underconsumption Theories: History and critical analysis, New
- J. Bonner, 1995, Economic Efficiency and Social Justice: The
development of utilitarian ideas in economics from Bentham to Edgeworth.
Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar.
- H. Brems, 1986, Pioneering Economic Theory, 1630-1980, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
- P. Bridel, 1997, Money and General Equilibrium Theory: from Walras to Pareto,
1870-1923, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
- J.M. Buchanan, 1960, Fiscal Theory and Political Economy: Selected
essays. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
- B.J. Caldwell, editor, Carl Menger and His Legacy in Economics, Annual
Supplement to Volume 22, History of Political Economy. Durham, NC: Duke
- E. Cannan, 1893, A History of the Theories of Production and Distribution in English
Political Economy from 1776 to 1848, New York: Augustus M. Kelley.
- J.W. Conard, 1959, An Introduction to the Theory of Interest.
Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press,
- L.A. Coser, 1984, Refugee Scholars in America: Their impact and their experiences.
New Haven: Yale University Press.
- P. Deane, 1978, The Evolution of Economic Ideas, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
- N. De Marchi and M.S. Morgan, 1994, Higgling: Transactors and Their
Markets in the History of Economics, Annual supplement to volume 26
History of Political Economy. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
- M.H. Dobb, 1973, Theories of Value and Distribution since Adam Smith: Ideology and
economic theory, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- M. Dore, S. Chakravarty and R. Goodwin, editors, 1989, John von Neumann and Modern
Economics, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- J. Dorfman, 1934, Thorstein Veblen and His America. 1972
edition, New York: A.M. Kelley.
- R.V. Eagly, 1984, The Structure of Classical Economic Theory, New York: Oxford
- J.L. Eatwell, M. Milgate and P.K.Newman, editors, 1985, The New Palgrave: A
dictionary of economics, New York: Macmillan.
- E.W. Eckard, 1940, Economics of W.S. Jevons. Washington, DC:
American Council on Public Affairs.
- R.B. Ekelund and R.F. Hébert, 1999, Secret Origins of Modern
Microeconomics: Dupuit and the Engineers. Chicago: University of
- D.E.C. Eversley, 1959, Social Theories of Fertility and the Malthusian
Debate. Oxford: Clarendon.
- M. Faber, 1979, Introduction to Modern Austrian Capital Theory.
- W. Fellner, 1949, Competition Among the Few: Oligopoly and similar
market structures. 1960 reprint, New York: A.M. Kelley.
- P. Gay, 1969, The Enlightenment: An interpretation - the Science of
Freedom. 1977 edition, New York: Norton.
- C. Gide and C.Rist, 1909, A History of Economic Doctrines, London: G.G.
- P. Groenewegen, 1995, A Soaring Eagle: Alfred Marshall 1842-1924.
- G. Haberler, 1937, Prosperity and Depression: A theoretical analysis of cyclical
movements, New York: United Nations.
- A.H. Hansen, 1951, Business Cycles and National Income, New York: Norton.
- G.C. Harcourt, 1972, Some Cambridge Controversies in the Theory of Capital,
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- A. Hald, 1998, A History of Mathematical Statistics: From 1750 to 1930.
New York: Wiley.
- F.A. Hayek, 1991, The Trend of Economic Thinking, London: Routledge.
- E.F. Heckscher, 1931, Mercantilism, 1935 translation, London: Allen & Unwin.
- R.L. Heilbroner, 1953, The Worldly Philosophers, New York: Simon and Schuster.
- R.L. Heilbroner, 1988, Behind the Veil of Economics: Essays in worldly philosophy,
New York: Norton.
- Eduard Heimann, 1945, History of Economic Doctrines: An introduction to economic
theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
- K. Hennings and W.J. Samuels, 1990, editors, Neoclassical Economic Theory, 1870 to
1930, Boston: Kluwer.
- G.M. Hodgson, 1993, Economics and Evolution: Bringing life back into economics,
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
- R.S. Howey, 1960, The Rise of the Marginal Utility School, 1870-1889.
Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.
- E.K. Hunt, 1979, History of Economic Thought. Wadsworth.
- T.W. Hutchinson, 1953, A Review of Economic Doctrines, Oxford: Clarendon.
- T.W. Hutchinson, 1994, The Uses and Abuses of Economics: Contentious essays on
history and method, London: Routledge.
- B.Ingrao and G. Israel, 1987, The Invisible Hand: Economic equilibrium in the history
of science, Cambridge, Mass: M.I.T. Press.
- W. Jaffé, 1983, William Jaffé's Essays on Walras (D. Walker, ed.), Cambridge,
UK: Cambridge University Press.
- L. Jonung, 1991, editor, The Stockholm School of Economics Revisited, Cambridge,
UK: Cambridge University Press.
- E. Kauder, 1965, A History of Marginal Utility Theory.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- J.M. Keynes, 1933, Essays in Biography, London: Macmillan.
- F.H. Knight, 1956, On the History and Method of Economics, Chicago: University of
- J.M. Koot, 1987, English Historical Economics, 1870- 1926, Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.
- C.D. Krohn, 1987, Intellectuals in Exile: Refugee scholars and the New School for
Social Research. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
- R.E. Kuenne, 1963, The Theory of General Economic Equilibrium, Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
- K. Kyun, 1988, Equilibrium Business Cycle Theory in Historical Perspective,
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- D. Laidler, 1991, The Golden Age of the Quantity Theory, Princeton, NJ: Princeton
- H. Landreth and D. Colander, History of Economic Theory, Boston:
- B.J. Loasby, 1989, The Mind and Method of the Economist: A critical appraisal of
major economists in the 20th century, Aldershot, UK: Elgar.
- F.A. Lutz, 1956, The Theory of Interest, Chicago: Aldine.
- F. Machlup, 1960, Essays in Economic Semantics. 1975 edition,
New York: New York University Press.
- J. Maloney, 1991, The Professionalization of Economics: Alfred Marshall and the
dominance of orthodoxy. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
- A.W. Marget, 1942, Theory of Prices, 2 vols., New York: Prentice Hall.
- K. Marx, 1910, Theories of Surplus Value, 3 vols., London: Lawrence &
- R. Meek, 1956, Studies in the Labor Theory of Value, New York: Monthly Review
- R. Meek, 1963, Economics of Physiocracy: Essays and translations, New York:
Augustus M. Kelley.
- R. Meek, 1973, Precursors of Adam Smith, London: Dent.
- P. Mirowski, 1989, More Heat than Light: Economics as social physics,
physics as nature's economics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
- P. Mirowski, 1994, editor, Edgeworth on Chance, Economic Hazard and
Statistics. Lanham, Maryland: Rowan and Littlefied.
- P. Mirowski, 2002, Machine Dreams: Economics becomes a cyborg science.
- W.C. Mitchell, 1967, Types of Economic Theory, 2 vols., New York: Augustus M.
- M.S. Morgan, 1990, The History of Econometric Ideas, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
- A.E. Murphy, 1983, editor, Economists and the Irish Economy.
Dublin: Irish Academic Press.
- H. Myint
- G. Myrdal, 1929, The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory.
Routledge and Kegan Paul.
- J. Narveson, 1967, Morality and Utility. Baltimore: Johns
- T. Negishi, 1989, History of Economic Thought, Amstedam: North-Holland.
- T. Negishi, 1994, The History of Economics: Collected Essays, Vol. II, Aldershot,
UK: Edward Elgar.
- J. Niehans, 1990, A History of Economic Theory: Classic contributions, 1720-1890,
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- D. Patinkin, 1972, Essays On and In the Chicago Tradition. Durham, NC: Duke
- D. Patinkin, 1976, Keynes's Monetary Thought: A study of its
development. Durham, NC: Duke
- D. Patinkin, 1982, Anticipations of the General Theory? And other essays on Keynes,
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- M. Perelman, 1984, Classical Political Economy.
- T.M. Porter, 1986, The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820-1900.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- K. Pribram, 1983, A History of Economic Reasoning, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
- A. Quinton, 1973, Utilitarian Ethics. 1988 edition, LaSalle, Ill:
- M.W. Reder, 1999, Economics: The culture of a controversial science.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- I. Rima, 1967, Development of Economic Analysis, Homewood, Ill., R. D. Irwin.
- E. Roll, 1939, History of Economic Thought, Englewodd Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
- W.W. Rostow, 1990, Theorists of Economic Growth: from David Hume to the present.
- P.M. Rutkoff and W.B. Scott, 1986, New School: A history of the New School for Social
Research. New York: Free Press.
- W.J. Samuels and Biddle, editors, Research in the History of Economic
Thought and Methodology.
- W.J. Samuels, 1988, Institutional Economics, 2 vols, Aldershot: Edward Elgar.
- W.J. Samuels, 1992, Essays in the History of Heterodox Political Economy, New
York: New York University Press
- W.J. Samuels, 1992, Essays in the History of Mainstream. Political Economy, New
York: New York University Press.
- W.J. Samuels, 1993, editor The Chicago School of Political Economy, New
Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction.
- W.J. Samuels, 1996, editor, American Economists of the Late Twentieth Century,
Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
- B. Sandelin, editor, 1991, A History of Swedish Economic Thought, London:
- G.L.S. Shackle, 1967, The Years of High Theory: Invention and tradition in economic
- J.A. Schumpeter, 1912, Economic Doctrine and Method. 1954
translation, New York: Oxford
- J.A.Schumpeter, 1951, Ten Great Economists from Marx to Keynes, New York: Oxford
- J.A. Schumpeter, 1954, History of Economic Analysis, New York: Oxford University
- E. Screpanti and Zamagni
- B.S. Seligman, 1962, Main Currents in Modern Economics, 3 volumes, Chicago:
- M. Shubik, 1959, Strategy and Market Structure: Competition, oligopoly
and the theory of games. New York: Wiley.
- R. Skidelsky, 1983, John Maynard Keynes: Vol. I - Hopes Betrayed,
1883-1920. London: Macmillan.
- R. Skidelsky, 1992, John Maynard Keynes: Vo. II - The Economist as
Saviour, 1920-1937. London: Macmillan.
- T. Sowell, 1972, Say's Law: An historical analysis, Princeton: Princeton
- T. Sowell, 1974, Classical Economics Reconsidered. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
- H.W. Spiegel, 1971, The Growth of Economic Thought, Durham, NC: Duke University
- G.J.Stigler, 1941, Production and Distribution Theories: The formative period,
New York: Macmillan.
- G.J.Stigler, 1965, Essays in the History of Economics, Chicago: University of
- S.M. Stigler, 1986, The History of Statistics: The measurement of
uncertainty before 1900. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University
- P.M. Sweezy, 1942, The Theory of Capitalist Development: Principles of Marxian
political economy, New York: Monthly Review Press.
- J. Viner, 1937, Studies in the Theory of International Trade, New York: Harper.
- J. Viner, 1991, Essays on the Intellectual History of Economics, Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
- J.J. Vromen, 1995, Economic Evolution: an inquiry into the foundations of new
institutional economics, London: Routledge.
- D.A.Walker, 1996, Walras's Market Models, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- V. Walsh and H. Gram, 1980, Classical and Neoclassical Theories of General
Equilibrium: Historical origins and mathematical structure, New York: Oxford
- E.R. Weintraub, 1979, Microfoundations: The compatibility of
microeconomics and macroeconomics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
- E.R. Weintraub, 1985, General Equilibrium Analysis: Studies in appraisal,
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- E.R. Weintraub, 1991, Stabilizing Dynamics: Constructing economic
knowledge. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- J.K. Whitaker, editor, 1990, Centenary Essays on Alfred Marshall. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.
Various issues of the following journals have also been consulted:
- History of Political Economy published by the Duke University
- Journal of the History of Economic Thought, published by the
History of Economics Society (USA)
- European Journal of the History of Economic Thought.
NOTES ON IMAGES
We wish to acknowledge some of the major sources of the images throughout this website.
Unfortunately, we started building this site and collecting the images before we
realized that perhaps we should have kept track of the sources. We are trying to rectify
the situation and have tried to reconstruct the sources in the following list, but it is
only tentative at present. Note that the following list does not imply that
we have received permission to use the images. Some requests for
permission were graciously given, but others are still pending, so please be very careful with them. If you would wish to use
any of the images, please refer to the sources, not us.
Many other images were gathered from throughout the web. If
these are not public domain, please notify us immediately and we will take
them down at once.
Images on Main Pages
Most of the images gracing the main pages of this website were drawn by a certain Mr. Herrick and have been scanned from J.S.
Gibbons (1859) The Banks of New York, Their Dealers, The Clearing House and the Panic
of 1857. New York: Appleton & Co.
The following images have were scanned from the following sources
American Economic Review: Portraits and/or signatures from American
Economic Review (various years) of the following economists : Arrow, Baumol, Becker,
Boulding, Burns, J.M. Clark, Commons, Davenport, Debreu, Domar, Douglas, Ely, Fetter,
Fisher?, Friedman, Galbraith, Georgescu-Roegen, Haberler, Hansen, Klein, Knight,
Koopmans, Kuznets, Leontief, Lewis, Machlup, Marschak, Metzler?, Mitchell,
Modigliani, Morgenstern, Rosenstein-Rodan?, Radner, Samuelson, Schelling,
Schumpeter, Scitovsky?, Seligman, Simon, Solow, Stigler, Taussig, Tobin, Viner, Walker,
Also from the American Economic Review:
1953 - from an article by Robert Dorfman, "Mathematical or Linear Programming: A
non-mathematical introduction", an illustration of activity analysis isoquants
1956 - from an article by Sidney Weintraub, "A Macroeconomic Approach to the Theory
of Wages", illustration of D/Z goods market equilibrium (Post Keynesians)
1957 - from an article by Francis M. Bator, "The Simple Analytics of Welfare
Maximization",an illustration of the Edgeworth-Bowley box and an illustration of
production optimality conditions. (Anglo-American Mathematical Marginalists, Lausanne
1971 - from an article by R.J. Barro and H.I. Grossman, "A General Disequilibrium
Model of Income and Employment", illustration of rationed market
1984 - from an article by Gerard Debreu, "Economic Theory in a Mathematical
Mode", an illustration of the Gale-Nikaido Lemma (Neo-Walrasians)
Econometrica: Portraits and/or signatures from Econometrica
(various years) of the following economists: Cournot, Divisia, F.M. Fisher?, Frisch,
Hotelling, Hurwicz, Malinvaud, Moore?, Pareto, Radner, Roos, Roy, Scarf, Schultz?,
Schumpeter?, Sonnenschein, von Thunen, Uzawa, Wald, Wold, Wicksell.
Also from Econometrica:
1934 - a note by Irving Fisher and fascimile of tribute by the Econometric Society to
University of Lausanne (Walras)
1935 - from an article by Michal Kalecki, "A Macrodynamic Theory of Business
Cycles", an illustration of a business cycle indicating peaks and troughs.(Business
1937- from an article by J.R. Hicks, "Mr. Keynes and the Classics: A suggested
interpretation", an illustration of the first IS-LM diagram (Neo-Keynesian Synthesis)
1981? - from an article whose reference we have unfortunately lost at present (but are
busy tracing and will cite appropriately!), a diagram of a Wald Test. (Empirics and
1991 - from an article by Ariel Rubinstein, a diagram of a game tree (Game Theory)
Quarterly Journal of Economics:
1966 - from an article by Luigi L. Pasinetti, "Changes in the Rate of Profit and
Switches of Technique", illustration of wage-profit curves with five techniques
(Capital Theory, Neo-Ricardians)
Journal of Political Economy: Portrait of Miguel
1939 - from an article by Paul Sweezy "Demand Under Conditions of Oligopoly",
diagram of kinked demand curve under oligopoly (Imperfect Competition)
Mark Blaug's "Great Economists
Before Keynes: An Introduction to the Lives and Works of One Hundred Great Economists of
the Past" (1986, Cambridge University Press) and "Great
Economists Since Keynes: An Introduction to the Lives and Works of One Hundred Modern
Economists" (1985, Cambridge University Press): portraits of the
following economists: Adelman, Aftalion, Alchian, Arrow, Bain, Barone, Bergson,
Bortkiewicz, Bowley, Burns, Cassel, Chamberlin, Chenery, J.M. Clark, Clower, Commons,
Demsetz, Dobb, Dorfman, Downs, Ely, Fisher, Gerschenkron, Haberler, Hahn, Hansen,
Harrod, Hawtrey, Hicks, Hilferding, Hirschmann, Jevons, H.G. Johnson, Kaldor, J. Neville
Keynes, Kuznets, Leijonhufvud, Lerner, Lipsey, Little, Lucas, Machlup,
McCulloch, Mincer, Morishima, Musgrave, Okun, Pasinetti, Patinkin,
Phelps, Pigou, Posner, Robbins, Robertson, Rostow, Say, Scitovsky, Senior, Shackle,
Spiethoff, Stiglitz, Thornton, Torrens, Triffin, Weber, Weintraub, Wicksell, Wieser.
(some of the scans from Dr. Hak
Other Sources: portraits of the following economists
were taken from
the following sources:
- Carver, Clark (young), Ely (young), Fetter, Fisher (young), George,
Seligman (young), Sumner, Taussig from A.F. Weber (1899) "American Economists of To-Day", New England
Magazine,Vol. 21 (3).
- Akerman - from Hegeland, editor, Money, Growth and Methodology: essays in honor
of Johan Akerman. 1961, Lund.
- Aumann - from S. Hart and A. Neyman, editors, 1995, Game and Economic Theory:
Selected Contributions in Honor of Robert J. Aumann. Ann Arbor: University
of Michigan Press,
- Allais, Brunner, A. Robinson, Tsuru - from M. Szenberg's Eminent Economists:
Their life philosophies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Baumol -- from Bailey and Nadiri, 1976, editors, Selected Economic
Writings of William J. Baumol. New York: New York University
- Beveridge -- from Beveridge, 1955, Power and Influence. New York:
- Cannan (f. own book?),
- De Quincey - from Thomas De Quincey's Writings, 1851.
- Dreze - from Barnett et al., editors, 1991, Equilibrium Theory and
Applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Foster & Catchings' Circuit of Money - from Foster and Catchings, 1923, Money.
New York: Houghton-Mifflin.
- B. Graham - from B. Graham, 1937, Storage
and Stability: A modern ever-normal granary, New York: McGraw-Hill
- Friedman-Stigler and Coase-Knight-Stigler-Demsetz pictures -- from G.J.
Stigler, 1988, Memoirs of an Unregulated Economist. New York:
- Haberler -- from G. Haberler, 1974, Economic Growth and Stability.
Los Angeles: Nash.
- Harcourt -- from G.C. Harcourt, 1986, Controversies in Political
Economy. New York: New York University Press.
- Hicks -- from J. Hicks, 1974, The Crisis in Keynesian Theory.
New York: Basic Books.
- Johnson - from A.S. Johsnon, 1954, Essays in Social Science, New
- Kaldor -- from Targetti and Thirwall, 1989, editors, The Essential
Kaldor. New York: Holmes & Meier.
- Lange, Simons, Viner and five photos of the Cowles Commission from D.
Patinkin's Essays On and In the Chicago Tradition, Durham, NC: Duke University
- Lowe - from H. Hagemann and H.D. Kurz, editors, 1984, Beschäftigung, Verteilung
und Konjuktur. Universit Bremen.
- Mandeville (f. frontpiece of the Fable of the Bees, Liberty Classics)
- Minsky - from S. Fazzari and D.B. Papadimitriou, 1992, editors, Financial
Conditions and Macroeconomic Performance. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe
- Nurkse - from Haberler and Stern, editors, 1961, Equilibrium and growth in the
world economy: Economic essays. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University
- Quesnay -- from Kuczynski and Meek, 1972, editors, Quesnay's Tableau
Economique. New York: A.M. Kelley.
- Rapoport - from A. Rapoport, 1960, Fights, Games and Debates. Ann
Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
- Schultz - from O. Lange, F. McKintyre and T.O. Yntema, editors, 1942 Studies in
Mathematical Economics and Econometrics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
- Schumpeter - from R.V. Clemence, editor, 1951, Essays of J.A.
Schumpeter. Cambridge, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
- J. Robinson (young) from G.R. Feiwel, 1989, editor, Economics of
Imperfect Competition and Employment. New York: New York
- J. Robinson (old) from G.R. Feiwel, 1989, editor, Joan Robinson and
Modern Economic Theory. New York: New York University Press.
- Sraffa-Keynes-Robertson portrait -- from Moggridge, editor, 1979, Collected
Writing of John Maynard Keynes, Vol. XXIX. New York: Macmillan.
- Walras - from W. Jaffe, editor, 1965, Correspondence of Leon Walras and Related
Papers, Vol. I. Amsterdam: North-Holland
Dr. Coll's Economia
de Mercado (Malaga): Amin, Kautsky, Kirzner,
The Cowles Foundation :
Cowles, Geanakoplos, Koopmans, Marschak, Roos, Scarf, Shubik, Yntema, the Mandarins
Nationale de France): Walrasian General Equilibrium Theory
Hay's McMaster Archive: Bentham, Bohm-Bawerk, Cantillon,
Clark, Hobbes, Law, Petty, Quesnay, Wicksteed.
History of Mathematics Archive: Bertrand, Bernoulli, Berkeley,
Condorcet, Mandelbrot, Karl Menger, Nash, Ramsey, Abraham Robinson, Slutsky.
Archive: Engels, Marx, Luxemburg, Growth Theory.
New Deal Network:
Keynesian Revolution, Neoclassical Macroeconomics
Website: Portraits of the following economists: Allais, Becker,
Buchanan, Coase, Debreu, Fogel, Friedman, Haavelmo, Harsanyi, Kantorovich,
Klein, W.A. Lewis, Markowitz, Meade, Merton, Miller, Modigliani,
North, Ohlin, Samuelson, Scholes, T.W. Schultz, Selten, Sharpe, Simon,
Stigler, Stone, Tinbergen, Vickrey.
Peel Web: the British Anti-Classicals, Manchester School
Dr. Eckhard Schultz's
Hall of Economists: Eucken, Kalecki, Keynes, Kondratieff,
List, Malthus, Marshall, Menger, Ricardo, Ropke, Schmoller, Schumpeter, Sombart,
Stackelberg. (Coase, Friedman, Hayek, Samuelson, Tobin)
Educational Website: Bentham, Henry and Millicent, Fawcett, Martineau,
J.Mill, Owen, Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Harriet Taylor, Mill and Taylor,
the Classical Ricardian System, the Classical Ricardians, Social Philosophers.
and the Centre
d'Histoire de la Pensée Economique: Boisguilbert.
The Siege and Commune of
Paris, 1870-71 (Northwestern University): the Marginalist Revolution
Individual Websites: Portraits of economists and other images
are borrowed from the following sites (links are given on respective pages): Anderson
(Berkeley), Barro (Hoover Institute), Baumol (Levy Institute), Bewley (Yale),
Blanchard (Harvard), Boulding (CSF, Colorado), Brown (Yale), Condillac (Univ. of
Idaho), Paul Davidson (Tennessee), Diamond (M.I.T.), Duffie (Stanford), Eatwell (House of
Lords), Foley (Columbia), Douglas Gale (NYU), Goodwin (Siena), Grodal
(Copenhagen), Heilbroner (New School), Hildenbrand (Bonn), Hume (Hume Archive), Jorgensen
(Harvard), Kreps (Stanford), McKenzie (Rochester), Meltzer
(Carnegie-Mellon), Thomas Moore (Texas), Mundell (Columbia), Nell (New School), Pantaleoni
(ITCG), Peleg (Elsevier), Sargent (Hoover Institute), Schwartz (Elsevier), Sen
(Indian-American Conference), Shell (Cornell), Smale (Berkeley), Starr (UC San
Diego), Stokey (Chicago), Vind (Copenhagen), Williamson (Berkeley), Wilson (Stanford),
American Economic Association (A.E.A. Site), Bullionist Controversy (Bank of England),
Cambridge Neoclassicals and Cambridge Keynesians (Cambridge University website), Chicago
School (University of Chicago website), Fabian Society (Beatrice Webb Homepage), German
Historical School (F. Velde's Heraldica website), Harvard (Harvard University website),
Kiel School (Kiel Institute), L.S.E. (L.S.E. site), Economic Development (Lusaka
Lowdown), Lessius, Molina, and de Lugo (Jesuit family album), Grotius (Societas Luridicas
Grotius), Marginalist Revolution (Northwestern), Business Cycles (Irish Famine
Project), Ayres (School of Cooperative Individualism),
Still trying to trace sources for the following images:
Galbraith, George, Godwin, Hutcheson, Locke, J.S. Mill, Mises, von
Neumann, Newcomb, Proudhon, Joan Robinson, Rousseau, Adam Smith, Spencer,
Turgot, Veblen, American Institutionalists, Enlightenment economists, Marxian
School, Mercantilists, Monetarism, New Institutionalist, Physiocrats,
Austrian, Scottish Enlightenment, Vienna Colloquium, Monetary Theory, Mathematical
All rights reserved, Gonçalo L. Fonseca