"See there!  I told you!  Not an ounce of originality!


Oh! Am I still stuck in this jail?
This God-damned dreary hole in the wall
Where even the lovely light of heaven
Breaks wanly through the painted panes!
Cooped up among these heaps of books
Gnawed by worms, coated with dust,
Round which to the top of the Gothic vault
A smoke-stained paper forms a crust...
The junk of centuries, dense and mat -
Your world, man! World? They call it that!
(J.W. GoetheFaust, Part One, 1808: 398-409)



All of the writing in the individual economists profiles, Schools of Thought, and under "Essays and Surveys" were composed by myself (Gonçalo Fonseca) between 1997 and now.  As this content is always being revised and changing, I do not encourage citation or reference to this material.  But if you must, then:

Fonseca,  Gonçalo (n.d.) "Article Title", The History of Economic Thought Website. Retrieved month, day, year from

(n.d.) means "no date".  You can also use the date range "(1997-2016)" if you prefer. 

We have also placed a small collection of original economics texts on this website.  Proper source and citations for these articles can be found either at the beginning of the documents are on the list of HET e-texts

Most other electronic texts you may come across on these pages are merely linked by us and are off this website.  For the major sources of original economics texts, see our list of online archives in the history of economic thought.  

Note: the "frames" design of this website hides the original web-address and so documents which are off this website may appear under our URL.  Open the document in a new window (right-click on the mouse) to get the correct web-address of the document you are interested in.



The following (non-electronic) texts have been consulted in constructing this website and are recommended to our visitors as further reading. This is merely a representative and not an exhaustive list of the resources that were used. As the written content of the web pages on this site is of our own composition, this brief list does not imply any more specific acknowledgement. See also our list of web links on HET for general online resources.

Note that not all of the references listed here are history of economic thought texts in the proper sense of the term. Several are merely economic treatises which nonetheless employ substantial and useful reviews of past and present economic doctrines.  If you wish to add a particularly informative book to this list, please e-mail us.

Various issues of the following journals have also been consulted:


We wish to acknowledge some of the major sources of the images throughout this website.  Unfortunately, we started building this site and collecting the images before we realized that perhaps we should have kept track of the sources. We are trying to rectify the situation and have tried to reconstruct the sources in the following list, but it is only tentative at present.  Note that the following list does not imply that we have received permission to use the images.  Some requests for permission were graciously given, but others are still pending, so please be very careful with them.   If you would wish to use any of the images, please refer to the sources, not us.

Many other images  were gathered from throughout the web.  If these are not public domain, please notify us immediately and we will take them down at once.

Images on Main Pages

Most of the images gracing the main pages of this website were drawn by a certain Mr. Herrick and have been scanned from J.S. Gibbons (1859) The Banks of New York, Their Dealers, The Clearing House and the Panic of 1857. New York: Appleton & Co.

Scanned Images

The following images have were scanned from the following sources

American Economic Review: Portraits and/or signatures from American Economic Review (various years) of the following economists : Arrow, Baumol, Becker, Boulding, Burns, J.M. Clark, Commons, Davenport, Debreu, Domar, Douglas, Ely, Fetter, Fisher?, Friedman, Galbraith,  Georgescu-Roegen, Haberler, Hansen, Klein, Knight, Koopmans,   Kuznets, Leontief, Lewis, Machlup,  Marschak, Metzler?, Mitchell, Modigliani, Morgenstern, Rosenstein-Rodan?, Radner, Samuelson,  Schelling, Schumpeter, Scitovsky?, Seligman, Simon, Solow, Stigler, Taussig, Tobin, Viner, Walker, Young. 

Also from the American Economic Review:

1953 - from an article by Robert Dorfman, "Mathematical or Linear Programming: A non-mathematical introduction", an illustration of activity analysis isoquants (Cowles Commission)
1956 - from an article by Sidney Weintraub, "A Macroeconomic Approach to the Theory of Wages", illustration of D/Z goods market equilibrium (Post Keynesians)
1957 - from an article by Francis M. Bator, "The Simple Analytics of Welfare Maximization",an illustration of the Edgeworth-Bowley box and an illustration of production optimality conditions. (Anglo-American Mathematical Marginalists, Lausanne School)
1971 - from an article by R.J. Barro and H.I. Grossman, "A General Disequilibrium Model of Income and Employment", illustration of rationed market (Walrasian-Keynesian)
1984 - from an article by Gerard Debreu, "Economic Theory in a Mathematical Mode", an illustration of the Gale-Nikaido Lemma (Neo-Walrasians)

Econometrica: Portraits and/or signatures from Econometrica (various years) of the following economists:  Cournot, Divisia, F.M. Fisher?, Frisch, Hotelling, Hurwicz, Malinvaud, Moore?,  Pareto, Radner, Roos, Roy, Scarf, Schultz?, Schumpeter?, Sonnenschein, von Thunen, Uzawa, Wald, Wold, Wicksell.

Also from Econometrica:

1934 - a note by Irving Fisher and fascimile of tribute by the Econometric Society to University of Lausanne (Walras)
1935 - from an article by Michal Kalecki, "A Macrodynamic Theory of Business Cycles", an illustration of a business cycle indicating peaks and troughs.(Business Cycle Theory)
1937- from an article by J.R. Hicks, "Mr. Keynes and the Classics: A suggested interpretation", an illustration of the first IS-LM diagram (Neo-Keynesian Synthesis)
1981? - from an article whose reference we have unfortunately lost at present (but are busy tracing and will cite appropriately!), a diagram of a Wald Test. (Empirics and Econometrics)
1991 - from an article by Ariel Rubinstein, a diagram of a game tree (Game Theory)

Quarterly Journal of Economics:

1966 - from an article by Luigi L. Pasinetti, "Changes in the Rate of Profit and Switches of Technique", illustration of wage-profit curves with five techniques (Capital Theory, Neo-Ricardians)

Journal of Political Economy: Portrait of Miguel Sidrauski. Also:

1939 - from an article by Paul Sweezy "Demand Under Conditions of Oligopoly", diagram of kinked demand curve under oligopoly (Imperfect Competition)

Mark Blaug's "Great Economists Before Keynes: An Introduction to the Lives and Works of One Hundred Great Economists of the Past" (1986, Cambridge University Press) and "Great Economists Since Keynes: An Introduction to the Lives and Works of One Hundred Modern Economists" (1985, Cambridge University Press): portraits of the following economists: Adelman, Aftalion, Alchian, Arrow, Bain, Barone, Bergson,  Bortkiewicz, Bowley, Burns, Cassel, Chamberlin, Chenery, J.M. Clark, Clower, Commons, Demsetz, Dobb, Dorfman, Downs, Ely, Fisher, Gerschenkron,  Haberler, Hahn, Hansen, Harrod, Hawtrey, Hicks, Hilferding, Hirschmann, Jevons, H.G. Johnson, Kaldor, J. Neville Keynes, Kuznets, Leijonhufvud,  Lerner, Lipsey, Little, Lucas, Machlup, McCulloch,  Mincer, Morishima,  Musgrave, Okun, Pasinetti,  Patinkin, Phelps, Pigou, Posner, Robbins, Robertson, Rostow, Say, Scitovsky, Senior, Shackle, Spiethoff,  Stiglitz, Thornton, Torrens, Triffin, Weber, Weintraub, Wicksell, Wieser. (some of the scans from Dr. Hak Choi sites)

Other Sources:  portraits of the following economists were taken from the following sources:

Borrowed Images

Dr. Coll's Economia de Mercado (Malaga): Amin, Kautsky, Kirzner,

The Cowles Foundation : Cowles, Geanakoplos, Koopmans, Marschak, Roos, Scarf, Shubik, Yntema, the Mandarins

Gallica (Bibliothèque Nationale de France): Walrasian General Equilibrium Theory

Rod Hay's McMaster Archive: Bentham,  Bohm-Bawerk, Cantillon, J.B. Clark, Hobbes, Law, Petty, Quesnay, Wicksteed.

MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive: Bertrand, Bernoulli, Berkeley, Condorcet, Mandelbrot, Karl Menger, Nash, Ramsey, Abraham Robinson, Slutsky.

Marx-Engels Archive: Engels, Marx, Luxemburg, Growth Theory.

New Deal Network: Keynesian Revolution, Neoclassical Macroeconomics

Nobel Website: Portraits of the following economists: Allais, Becker, Buchanan, Coase, Debreu, Fogel, Friedman, Haavelmo, Harsanyi, Kantorovich, Klein,  W.A. Lewis, Markowitz, Meade, Merton, Miller, Modigliani,  Myrdal,   North, Ohlin, Samuelson, Scholes, T.W. Schultz,  Selten, Sharpe, Simon, Solow, Stigler,  Stone, Tinbergen, Vickrey.

The Peel Web: the British Anti-Classicals, Manchester School

Dr. Eckhard Schultz's Hall of Economists: Eucken, Kalecki, Keynes, Kondratieff, Leontief, List, Malthus, Marshall, Menger, Ricardo, Ropke, Schmoller, Schumpeter, Sombart, Stackelberg. (Coase,  Friedman, Hayek, Samuelson, Tobin)

Spartacus Educational Website: Bentham, Henry and Millicent, Fawcett, Martineau, J.Mill,  Owen, Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb,  Harriet Taylor, Mill and Taylor,   the Classical Ricardian System, the Classical Ricardians, Social Philosophers.

Paulette Taieb and the Centre d'Histoire de la Pensée Economique:  Boisguilbert.

The Siege and Commune of Paris, 1870-71 (Northwestern University): the Marginalist Revolution

Individual Websites: Portraits of economists and other images are borrowed from the following sites (links are given on respective pages): Anderson (Berkeley), Barro (Hoover Institute), Baumol (Levy Institute),  Bewley (Yale), Blanchard (Harvard), Boulding (CSF, Colorado), Brown (Yale), Condillac (Univ. of Idaho), Paul Davidson (Tennessee), Diamond (M.I.T.), Duffie (Stanford), Eatwell (House of Lords),  Foley (Columbia), Douglas Gale (NYU), Goodwin (Siena),  Grodal (Copenhagen), Heilbroner (New School), Hildenbrand (Bonn), Hume (Hume Archive), Jorgensen (Harvard), Kreps (Stanford),  McKenzie (Rochester), Meltzer (Carnegie-Mellon), Thomas Moore (Texas), Mundell (Columbia), Nell (New School), Pantaleoni (ITCG), Peleg (Elsevier), Sargent (Hoover Institute), Schwartz (Elsevier),  Sen (Indian-American Conference),  Shell (Cornell), Smale (Berkeley), Starr (UC San Diego), Stokey (Chicago), Vind (Copenhagen), Williamson (Berkeley), Wilson (Stanford), American Economic Association (A.E.A. Site), Bullionist Controversy (Bank of England), Cambridge Neoclassicals and Cambridge Keynesians (Cambridge University website), Chicago School (University of Chicago website), Fabian Society (Beatrice Webb Homepage), German Historical School (F. Velde's Heraldica website), Harvard (Harvard University website), Kiel School (Kiel Institute),  L.S.E. (L.S.E. site), Economic Development (Lusaka Lowdown), Lessius, Molina, and de Lugo (Jesuit family album), Grotius (Societas Luridicas Grotius),  Marginalist Revolution (Northwestern), Business Cycles (Irish Famine Project), Ayres (School of Cooperative Individualism),

Still trying to trace sources for the following images:   Galbraith, George, Godwin, Hutcheson, Locke, J.S. Mill, Mises, von Neumann, Newcomb, Proudhon, Joan Robinson, Rousseau, Adam Smith, Spencer, Turgot, Veblen, American Institutionalists,  Enlightenment economists, Marxian School,  Mercantilists, Monetarism,  New Institutionalist, Physiocrats, Austrian, Scottish Enlightenment, Vienna Colloquium, Monetary Theory, Mathematical Appendix, Marcet


All rights reserved, Gonçalo L. Fonseca

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